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Unformatted text preview: What is Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences (NERS)? Major areas of Nuclear Eng. and Radiological Sciences Examples of Devices and Systems Developed in NERS Major Problems Addressed in NERS Intellectual Foundations of NERS Involved, Physical Theories of Importance, General Engineering Concepts •  Undergraduate Course Offerings in NERS at Michigan •  NERS Research Programs Active at Michigan •  Job Opportunities in Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences •  •  •  •  •  •  2 •  Nuclear Engineering –  Concerned with the atomic nucleus –  Implementing nuclear technology –  Reactor design •  Radiological Sciences –  Radiation and Exposure, Health –  Understanding the physics behind the nucleus 3 •  Limit climate change due to fossil fuel combustion for electricity generation •  Improve medical diagnosis and treatment •  Increase nuclear security •  Find solutions for radioactive waste •  Generate hydrogen & electricity to power cars •  Research fusion energy 4 •  …to control of radiation & energy in order to develop devices and systems, which improve human conditions. •  Applications in energy, medicine, security, industry, agriculture…. •  Types of radiation and energy: –  neutrons, protons, electrons, alpha particles –  electromagnetic radiation: x-rays, gamma rays, light (ultraviolet, visible, infrared), microwaves, radio frequency waves •  Nuclear Fission Reactors for Electrical Energy Generation •  Plasma Sciences, Fusion Energy and Particle Beam Accelerators •  Medical Physics, Radiological and Environmental Sciences •  Nuclear Measurements and Instrumentation •  Nuclear Materials and Fuels 6 Why nuclear/radiation technologies 7 8 World population: 6.7B US population: 307M •  •  •  •  China population: 1.3 B India population: 1.1 B Europe population: 730M New York population: 8M" •  Total number of people who have ever lived: 100,000,000,000 9 10 USA 2008 Nameplate 2008 Electricity:DOE Capacity US electricity Coal (MWe) Natural Gas Petroleum Nuclear Hydro Wind Solar Capacity factor 337.3 GWe 0.722 454.6 GWe 0.407 63.7 GWe 0.092 106.1 GWe 0.911 77.7 GWe 0.372 25.0 GWe 0.3 0.5 GWe 0.2 X 0.372 X 0.3 X 0.2 Power for world: 15 TWt in 2010, 30,000 GWt 2050. Reasonable target for US hold to current level of 3,700 GWt = 1,850 TWe: (a) without massive damage to the environment, (b) without undermining nation’s competitiveness. (Wind & solar have problems when they add only 1% & 0.01% capacity in 30 yr.) (slide courtesy of Frank Shu) NERS 211 12 13 •  As a result of high nuclear power usage (82% of electricity), France has an annual CO2 emission of only 1.8 metric tons of carbon equivalent per person compared to: •  2.9 in Germany •  3 in Denmark •  4.3 in Canada •  5.5 in the US 14 Harnessing the atom 15 16 •  9 Moment magnitude earthquake and tsunami (largest in Japan history) –  Fukushima Design Basis: MW= 8.2 •  Loss of coolant •  Units 1 to 4 –  Hydrogen explosion inside reactor service floor (1 and 3) –  Destruction of steel framework structure (units 1, 3 and 4). 17 18 19 Hyperion reactor = ~27 MWe; enough for 20,000 homes. Fuel lasts for 5 years 20 •  Materials processing (ion implantation; e.g. semiconductor processing for computer chips) •  Fission reactor materials testing •  Optimal utilization of nuclear fuel •  Nuclear waste processing for long term storage •  Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) research 21 •  Nuclear fusion research (hot fusion: sun & stars) •  Plasma processing of integrated circuits ($10’s B) •  Plasma lighting and displays (most energy efficient) •  Advanced accelerators for medicine, industry and materials processing •  Physics and astrophysics 22 •  Fuel from Hydrogen isotope in water •  Waste is (non-radioactive) helium 23 •  Confine plasma inertially •  Compress plasma to increase density and pressure •  Plasma confinement for time-scale of compression 25 •  Largest scale use of radiation is in medicine •  Diagnostics: CAT (Computer Assisted Tomography) Scan, PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MRI) •  Cancer therapy: radiation oncology •  Computer modeling of radiation transport in human tissue •  Dosimetry (measurement of dose) •  Radioactive Waste Management 26 •  2 x 511 keV photons emitted at 180o to each other •  Detectors use correlated photons to build map of region where radionuclide absorbed 27 •  Calculations like these, radiation beams moving through tissue, used to take days. •  These kinds of calculations are essential to make cancer treatment accurate (radiotherapy). •  Techniques developed in NERS allow these calculations to be done in minutes! •  Chances are, if you get cancer, part of your treatment would have been developed here at the UM 28 •  Development of detectors of nuclear radiation for: •  medical diagnostics (e.g., CAT scan) •  Nuclear nonproliferation; airport security; cargo containers from ships •  Fission reactors •  Nondestructive evaluation (automotive industry) •  Physics and astrophysics 29 •  Analysis •  Design 30 •  The problem of analysis is to predict the properties of a device or a system to be developed. This is typically accomplished using: •  Theoretical (i.e., mathematical) analysis •  Computer simulation techniques (modeling) •  Experimental studies •  An example of an analysis problem using theoretical and computational approach: –  Design of a novel accelerator system 31 •  Schematic diagram of a particle accelerator for x-ray radiology or radiation therapy for cancer treatment. Electrical input High electric field structure & microwave generator accelerator Focusing system electron beam target x-rays 32 The problem of design consists of selecting free parameters of a device or a system so that the performance is optimized. Here theoretical and computational approaches are used For the novel accelerator example these are:   Analytical calculations of electron beam acceleration in electric fields,   Computer simulations of electron orbits utilizing an electromagnetic particle-in-cell code 33 •  New medical radiation therapy computational tools •  Advanced reactor design (passive safety) •  Accelerator systems (medical, industry and government) •  Detector systems (medical diagnostics, airport security) •  Plasma processing systems for integrated circuits •  New materials for radioactive waste management 34 •  •  •  •  •  •  Ordinary and partial differential equations. Vector calculus Fourier theory Complex analysis Probability and statistics Computational mathematics and linear algebra 35 •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Nuclear physics Atomic physics Electromagnetism Thermodynamics Classical mechanics (Special) theory of relativity Quantum mechanics Condensed matter physics 36 •  Particle dynamics and interactions –  Kinetics –  Cross-sections •  Radiation transport –  X-rays/ gamma rays, ultraviolet and visible photons, microwaves/ radio waves •  Thermohydraulics in BWRs •  Neutronic material damage 37 •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  NERS211: Introduction to Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences NERS250: Fundamentals of Nuclear Engineering NERS311: Elements of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences I NERS312: Elements of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences II NERS315: Nuclear Instrumentation Lab NERS421: Nuclear Engineering Materials NERS425: Applications of Radiation Laboratory NERS441: Nuclear Reactor Theory NERS442: Nuclear Power Reactors NERS445: Nuclear Reactor laboratory NERS462: Reactor Safety Analysis NERS471: Introduction to Plasmas NERS472: Fusion Reactor Technology NERS481/BioE48: Eng. Principles of Radiation Imaging NERS484/ BioE484: Radiological Health Engineering Fundamentals 38 •  Nuclear Fission Reactors for Electrical Energy Generation •  Plasma Sciences, Fusion Energy and Particle Beam Accelerators •  Medical Physics, Radiological and Environmental Sciences •  Nuclear Measurements and Instrumentation •  Nuclear Materials and Fuels 39 Equivalent Storage Time (years) 101 1.0 102 104 105 Amorphous Gd2Ti2O7 (10 wt% Pu) 0.5 Predicted Behavior From Systematic Studies Plutonium Release Rate Increased by 50x in Amorphous Gd2Ti2O7 Gd2Zr2O7 (10 wt% Pu) Relative Radiation Da 0.0 1016 103 1017 1018 1019 1020 Dose (alpha decays / gram) Plutonium Immobilized for Millennia in Stable Structure of Gd2Zr2O7 (L-R) Matt Gomez, Nick Jordan, Dave French, Matt Fronzi, Arthur Holtz, Jacob Zier, Brad Hoff, Ron Gilgenbach, Carlos Destefano, Y.Y. Lau, Du Pengvanich, Wilkin Tang, and Ed Cruz 41 high power hich serves e emerging y beam can from the orrelated l paramebe 5–15 intensity ing techthe x-ray consistent e photon We find urements ment are m has an les phase ue which opagation tector) is h Fresnel ð’ 30 fsÞ s of 1022 tional 3rd contrast ource can ns with a h (Figure istance of in contact . Absorpa is good in wings selfly is selfly at e source, coherent contrast, exoskelss section r 18 keV oherence ays 0.5 m contrast e configed by the ch larger FIG. 2. (Color online) X-ray absorption contrast image of (a) an orange tetra fish and (b) a damselfly and x-ray phase contrast image of (c) a damselfly and (d) a yellow jacket. Images are taken with betatron radiation from a laser wakefield accelerator. The spectrum is synchrotron like with Ecrit ’ 10 keV. Red lines indicate where images were assembled from sub-images due to the limited field of view of the detector. The phase contrast images are taken in a single shot 30 fs exposure. Yellow boxes indicate where intensity lineouts where taken for Figure 4. than the x-ray source size. Fine details of the skeleton and fins of the fish can be noticed in Figure 2(a) and an intensity lineout across the caudal fin (shaded yellow box in Figure 2(a)) is plotted in Figure 4. This demonstrates imaging resolution of at least ’ 120 lm. Due to the increased image distance necessary for propagation phase contrast imaging, the ccd detector is recording a M ¼ v=u ’ 4:2 magnified image of the specimen, when compared to the contact images. This has two consequences. First, to capture the entire specimen, multiple sub-images have to be joined, as indicated by the red dashed lines in Figure 2. Second, the effective detector pixel size 13/4.2 ¼ 3.1 is now on the order of the x-ray source size, permitting a greater image resolution. Thus, to allow for a fair ath: Q:/3b2/APL#/Vol00000/110749/APPFile/AI-APL#110749 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 42 60Co 22Na 133Ba Overlaid Optical and γ-Ray Image in our laboratory Orion can see hidden special nuclear materials in facilities behind walls, in vehicles, cargo containers and airplanes . !"#$%"&'()"*%+&,*-*)-.#/&0+)1.-*)-(+* #$%&'()*'+,-.-/0$)1(-.1+()21+'$3,3(-%$244-.3$%&'()5'-$2552.(&1)()-3$42.$/-(-6()217 3./",*&40,.&"5&6.5.,$. 7#%.)0#8$&2)"%./%0",9& !",%)"89&:&;//"(,%#<080%= 1")*.)& 2)"%./%0", 2")%>"5>6.-#)%().& 3/)..,0,? !"#$%&'(#)*& +,$-./%0", ;%>$.#& +,%.)*0/%0", 2"%.,%0#8&$"()/.&"5&[email protected] 2"%.,%0#8&%#)?.% 44 !" •  Job market for NERS graduates is excellent (multiple offers for graduates). Some 1,000 new positions PER YEAR •  Quote from President of General Electric: “There is no better time to be in Nuclear. Your time has come” •  GREEN JOBS exist in industry and government: –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  Medical diagnostic & treatment industry Electric utilities Semiconductor plasma-processing Co. Lighting industry Aerospace industry Hospitals and Medical Research Labs Manufacturing / automotive industries Government and National Labs 45 •  Industry: Lockheed Martin, General Electric: (Research Lab, Medical Systems, Lighting), Northrop Grumman, L-3 Communications, Raytheon, Applied Materials, LAM, Motorola, Intel, Ford, Electric Utilities,… •  Universities: Wisconsin, Cornell, Duke, UC Berkeley, Texas A&M, NC State, Maryland, Missouri, Florida, New Mexico, Iceland, Korea, China •  Hospitals: UM, Henry Ford, Duke U. + many others •  Government: Sandia National Labs, Los Alamos National Lab, Naval Research Lab, Lawrence Livermore Nat. Lab, Air Force Research Lab, Argonne National Lab (Chicago and Idaho), Nuclear Regulatory Commission 46 47 •  Limit climate change due to fossil fuel combustion for electricity generation •  Improve medical diagnosis and treatment •  Increase nuclear security •  Find solutions for radioactive waste •  Generate hydrogen & electricity to power cars •  Research fusion energy 48 •  Contact: –  Pam Derry: [email protected] 49 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2012 for the course ENGR 110 taught by Professor None during the Fall '08 term at University of Michigan.

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