7 - Materials In Engineering, Science, and Everyday Life...

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Materials In Engineering, Science, and Everyday Life Dept. Materials Science & Engineering Dept. Materials Science & Engineering University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
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The history of mankind is a story of materials From the stone age to the iron and bronze ages we characterize our command of nature by the materials we use. Now in the era of steel skyscrapers, Silicon Valley and “better living through plastic” our materials advance at a quickening pace. The future is what we dream it to be.
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The world of materials PE, PP, PC PA (Nylon) Polymers, elastomers Butyl rubber Neoprene Polymer foams Metal foams Foams Ceramic foams Glass foams Woods Natural materials Natural fibres: Hemp, Flax, Cotton GFRP CFRP Composites KFRP Plywood Alumina Si-Carbide Ceramics, glasses Soda-glass Pyrex Steels Cast irons Al-alloys Metals Cu-alloys Ni-alloys Ti-alloys Unit 1, Frame 1.4
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What is Materials Science and Engineering? How the structure of solids affects their properties How processing a solid can alter it’s structure and/or properties How structure, properties, and processing affect performance of a solid
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Basic material properties General Weight: Density ρ , Mg/m 3 Expense: Cost/kg C m , $/kg Mechanical Stiffness: Young’s modulus E, GPa Strength: Elastic limit σ y , MPa Fracture strength: Tensile strength σ ts , MPa Brittleness: Fracture toughness K ic , MPa.m 1/2 Thermal Expansion: Expansion coeff. α , 1/K Conduction: Thermal conductivity λ , W/m.K Electrical Conductor? Insulator? Young’s modulus, E Elastic limit, y σ Strain ε Stress σ Ductile materials Brittle materials Young’s modulus, E Tensile (fracture) strength, ts σ Strain ε * * Thermal expansion o Expansion coefficient, α Temperature, T Thermal strain ε T 1 T o Q joules/sec x Area A Thermal conduction Mechanical properties Thermal conductivity, λ (T 1 - T 0 )/x Heat flux, Q/A Unit 1, Frame 1.5
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Materials information for design The goal of design: “To create products that perform their function effectively, safely, at acceptable cost” What do we need to know about materials to do this? More than just test data . Test Test data Data capture Statistical analysis Design data Mechanical Properties Bulk Modulus 4.1 - 4.6 GPa Compressive Strength 55 - 60 MPa Ductility 0.06 - 0.07 Elastic Limit 40 - 45 MPa Endurance Limit 24 - 27 MPa Fracture Toughness 2.3 - 2.6 MPa.m 1/2 Hardness 100 - 140 MPa Loss Coefficient 0.009- 0.026 Modulus of Rupture 50 - 55 MPa Poisson's Ratio 0.38 - 0.42 Shear Modulus 0.85 - 0.95 GPa Tensile Strength 45 - 48 MPa Young's Modulus 2.5 - 2.8 GPa Successful applications $ Economic analysis and business case Selection of material and process Potential applications Characterization Selection and implementation Unit 1, Frame 1.7
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7 - Materials In Engineering, Science, and Everyday Life...

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