ch08.pptx - Created by Professor William Tam &...

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Unformatted text preview: Created by Professor William Tam & Dr. Phillis Chang Ch. 8 - Chapter 8 Chapter 8 Alkenes and Alkynes II: Alkenes and Alkynes II: Addition Reactions Addition Reactions Ch. 8 - About The Authors About The Authors These PowerPoint Lecture Slides were created and prepared by Professor William Tam and his wife, Dr. Phillis Chang. Professor William Tam received his B.Sc. at the University of Hong Kong in 1990 and his Ph.D. at the University of Toronto (Canada) in 1995. He was an NSERC postdoctoral fellow at the Imperial College (UK) and at Harvard University (USA). He joined the Department of Chemistry at the University of Guelph (Ontario, Canada) in 1998 and is currently a Full Professor and Associate Chair in the department. Professor Tam has received several awards in research and teaching, and according to Essential Science Indicators , he is currently ranked as the Top 1% most cited Chemists worldwide. He has published four books and over 80 scientific papers in top international journals such as J. Am. Chem. Soc., Angew. Chem., Org. Lett., and J. Org. Chem. Dr. Phillis Chang received her B.Sc. at New York University (USA) in 1994, her M.Sc. and Ph.D. in 1997 and 2001 at the University of Guelph (Canada). She lives in Guelph with her husband, William, and their son, Matthew. Ch. 8 - C C E Nu E C C Nu + 1. Addition Reactions of Alkenes Ch. 8 - 1A. 1A. How To How To Understand Additions Understand Additions to Alkenes to Alkenes This is an addition reaction: E Nu added across the double bond C C E Nu E C C Nu + Bonds broken Bonds formed -bond -bond 2 -bonds Ch. 8 - Since p bonds are formed from the overlapping of orbitals, electron clouds are above and below the plane of the double bond C C electron clouds Ch. 8 - Electrophilic electron seeking C=C and C C bonds are particularly susceptible to electrophilic reagents (electrophiles) Common electrophile H + , X + (X = Cl, Br, I), Hg 2+ , etc. Ch. 8 - In an electrophilic addition, the electrons seek an electrophile, breaking the bond, forming a bond and leaving a positive charge on the vacant orbital on the adjacent carbon. Addition of B to form a bond provides an addition product Ch. 8 - C C A C C E C C Nu Nu E Nu + - 2. Electrophilic Addition of Hydrogen Halides to Alkenes: Mechanism and Markovnikovs Rule Mechanism Ch. 8 - C C E Mechanism Sometimes do not go through a free carbocation, may go via Ch. 8 - C C H H H H E Nu E C C H H H H E C C H H H H E C C H H H H Nu E C C H H...
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course PSYCH 373 taught by Professor Marthafaircloth during the Spring '09 term at Campbell.

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ch08.pptx - Created by Professor William Tam &...

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