ch04.pptx - Chapter4 Nomenclature Conformationsof...

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Created by Professor William Tam & Dr. Phillis Chang Ch. 4 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Nomenclature &  Nomenclature &  Conformations of Conformations of Alkanes & Cycloalkanes Alkanes & Cycloalkanes
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Ch. 4 - 1. Introduction to Alkanes & Cycloalkanes Alkanes and cycloalkanes  are  hydrocarbons in which all the carbon- carbon ( C–C ) bonds are single bonds Hydrocarbons that contain C C : Alk enes Hydrocarbons that contain C C : Alk ynes
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Ch. 4 - Alkanes:  C n H 2n+2 e.g. hexane (C 6 H 14 ) 1 2 3 6 4 5 e.g. cyclohexane (C 6 H 12 ) Cycloalkanes:  C n H 2n
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Ch. 4 - 1A. 1A. Sources of Alkanes:  Sources of Alkanes:  Petroleum Petroleum Petroleum  is the primary source of  alkanes.  It is a complex mixture of  mostly  alkanes  and aromatic  hydrocarbons with small amounts of  oxygen- nitrogen- , and  sulfur- containing compounds
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Ch. 4 - Distillation  is the first step in refining  petroleum.  Its components are  separated based on different  volatility More than 500 different compounds  are contained in petroleum  distillates boiling below 200 o C Petroleum  refining
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Ch. 4 - The fractions taken contain a  mixture of  alkanes  of  similar boiling  points Mixture of  alkanes  can be used as  fuels solvents , and  lubricants Petroleum  refining (Cont’d)
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Ch. 4 - The demand of  gasoline  is much  greater than that supplied by the  gasoline fraction of  petroleum Converting hydrocarbons from  other fractions of petroleum into  gasoline by “ catalytic cracking catalysts ~ 500 o C mixture of alkanes (C 12  and higher) highly branched hydrocarbons 5  - C 10 ) Gasoline
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Ch. 4 - 2. Shapes of Alkanes All carbon atoms in alkanes and  cycloalkanes are  sp 3  hybridized, and  they all have a  tetrahedral  geometry Even “straight-chain” alkanes are not  straight.  They have a zigzag geometry
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Ch. 4 - “Straight-chain” (unbranched) alkanes Butane Pentane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3
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Ch. 4 -  Branched-chain alkanes Isobutane Neopentane CH 3 CH CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 C CH 3 CH 3 CH 3
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Ch. 4 -  Butane and isobutane have the same  molecular formula (C 4 H 10 ) but different  bond connectivities.  Such compounds  are called  constitutional isomers Isobutane Butane
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Ch. 4 -  C 4  and higher alkanes exist as  constitutional isomers.  The number of  constitutional isomers increases rapidly  with the carbon number Molecular  Formula # of Possible Const. Isomers Molecular  Formula # of Possible Const. Isomers C 4 H 10 2 C 9 H 20 35 C 5 H 12 3 C 10 H 22 75 C 6 H 14 5 C 20 H 42 366,319 C 7 H 16 9 C 40 H 82 62,481,801,147,341 C 8 H 18 18
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Ch. 4 -  3. IUPAC Nomenclature of Alkanes, Alkyl Halides, & Alcohols One of the most commonly used  nomenclature systems that we use 
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course PSYCH 373 taught by Professor Marthafaircloth during the Spring '09 term at Campbell University .

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ch04.pptx - Chapter4 Nomenclature Conformationsof...

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