Fall 2011 Chem 222 Review

Fall 2011 Chem 222 Review - Fall 2011 Chem 222 Review...

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Unformatted text preview: Fall 2011 Chem 222 Review Monday Dec 12, 2011 C h 2 6 12. Summary of Important Families of Organic Compounds C h 2 7 C h 2 8 13B. Intermolecular Forces (van der Waals Forces) v The forces that act between molecules are not as strong as those between ions v These intermolecular forces, van der Waals forces , are all electrical in nature Dipole-dipole forces Hydrogen bonds Dispersion forces C h 2 9 Dipole-dipole forces t Dipole-dipole attractions between polar molecules O O + - + - dipole-dipole attraction C Cl H H H C Cl H H H + - + - C h 2 10 Hydrogen bonds t Dipole-dipole attractions between hydrogen atoms bonded to small, strongly electronegative atoms (O, N, or F) and nonbonding electron pairs on other such electronegative atoms t Hydrogen bonds (bond dissociation energies of about 4 38 kJ mol-1) are weaker than ordinary covalent bonds but much stronger than the dipoledipole interactions C h 2 11 Hydrophobic means incompatible with water Hydrophilic means compatible with water OH Decyl alcohol Hydrophobic portion Hydrophilic group A typical detergent molecule O S O Na O O C h 2 12 14. Summary of Attractive Electric Forces C h 3 13 2. AcidBase Reactions v Many of the reactions that occur in organic chemistry are either acidbase reactions themselves or they involve an acidbase reaction at some stage v Two classes of acidbase reactions are fundamental in organic chemistry BrnstedLowry Lewis acidbase reactions C h 3 14 2B. Acids and Bases in Water v Hydronium ion (H3O+) is the strongest acid that can exist in water to any significant extent: Any stronger acid will simply transfer its proton to a water molecule to form hydronium ions v Hydroxide ion (HO-) is the strongest base that can exist in water to any significant extent: Any base stronger than hydroxide will remove a proton from water to form hydroxide ions C h 3 15 Lewis Acid (e pair acceptor) Lewis Base (e pair donor) + Cl Al + - NH 3 Cl Cl - - Al NH 3 Cl Cl Cl v In Lewis acidbase theory, the attraction of oppositely charged species is fundamental to reactivity C h 3 16 7. How to Predict the Outcome of AcidBase Reactions v Acidbase reactions always favor the formation of the weaker acid and the weaker base v Acidbase reactions are under equilibrium control v Reactions under equilibrium control always favour the formation of the most stable (lowest potential energy) species C h 3 17 Hydride p Ka C (H3C H ) 48 N (H2N H ) 38 O (HO H ) 15.7 F (F H ) 3.2 S (HS H ) 7.0 Cl (Cl H )-7 Se (HSe H ) 3.9 Br (Br H )-9 I Acidity increases within a given row...
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Fall 2011 Chem 222 Review - Fall 2011 Chem 222 Review...

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