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Unformatted text preview: LAB # 4 - INVERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY The paleontology labs for historical geology will concentrate on the recognition of the most important types of fossils, their biostratigraphic ranges (when they evolved and at what time they became extinct), their habitats (the place where they lived), and their life habits (the way they went about their daily activities, primarily locomotion and food-gathering). In the paleontology labs we will be concerned with several subdisciplines of paleontology. We will observe the effects of organisms on sediments during the field trips. The study of tracks, trails, and burrows left by ancient organisms, termed ichnology , is an important aspect of paleontology. Micropaleontology is the study of fossils that are too small to study without the aid of a microscope. Micropaleontology has become an extremely valuable tool in the search for fossil fuels. The large rotary drills used in recovering petroleum and testing for the presence of other fossil fuels tends to destroy all traces of ancient organisms except for microfossils. These little organisms are important for defining the age of the sediments and the paleoenvironments in which oil might be discovered. Primarily, micropaleontologists study protozoans and algae. However, some types of crustaceans, bryozoans, and gastropods are best observed by using a microscope and thus fall in the realm of micropaleontology. Another field of paleontology is paleobotany , the study of fossil plants. Palynology , the study of spores, pollen and other "plant" microfossils, is a science that is related to both micropaleontology and paleobotany and is also widely utilized in the search for fossil fuels. Invertebrate paleontology is the study of fossil animals lacking a backbone, and includes most of what we refer to as the "lower animals". The study of fossil vertebrate animals (such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) is termed vertebrate paleontology . TAXONOMY - THE SCIENCE OF CLASSIFYING ORGANISMS For hundreds of years organisms were divided into two groups: plants and animals. However, as the studies of all living organisms progressed, it was discovered that not all life forms fit neatly into one of these two groups. Therefore, five major groups of organisms ( Kingdoms ) are now recognized: Monera (prokaryotes; organisms with a very primitive cellular construction), Protista [one-celled (unicellular) eukaryotes; organisms with advanced cellular features such as nuclear membranes, mitochondria, chloplasts, vacuoles and golgi apparati], Fungi , Metaphyta/Plantae (plants) and Metazoa/Animalia (animals). Each kingdum may be divided into smaller groupings, termed phyla (singular is phylum; in plants this subgrouping is termed a division ). A phylum or division may be divided into classes , which may be grouped into orders , and orders may be subdivided into families . Every known organism has been given a genus and species name, derived from Latin or Greek and underlined...
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- Fall '10
- Geology, Cnidaria, Phylum, Phylum Porifera, PHYLUM _________________