Oceanography Notes

Oceanography Notes - OCEANOGRAPHY NOTES, PAGE 1 I. The...

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OCEANOGRAPHY NOTES, PAGE 1 I. The Origins of Oceanography - Oceanography is the study of the oceans - includes studies of biology, geology, hydrology, chemistry and physics - although the scientific exploration of the World's oceans has only taken place during the past two hundred years, the oceans have influenced humans for tens of thousands of years A. Early Mariners of the Pacific - colonization of the Pacific originated from Asia 1. Australia - may have been first settled approximately 50-70 thousand years ago - may have been settled from "accidental" sea voyages by rafts or logs but these early explorers would be floating against the currents and there is one open-water crossing of more than 50 miles - by 10 thousand years ago aboriginal peoples had settled in all major environmental zones 2. Oceania - the islands of the Pacific were probably explored for trade and colonization; the colonization of Oceania was from Asia - extensive knowledge of winds, stars and currents allowed colonization of tiny islands throughout the Pacific (subsequently with about 400 Austronesian languages developing in isolation on these islands) - Polynesians probably originated from Taiwan or eastern China; using double-hulled canoes, they voyaged eastward against the prevailing winds, took women and children, and carried livestock, seedlings and rootstock B. Early Mariners of the Mediterranean - conducted widespread trade with Europe, the Near East and northern Africa (metals, textiles, pottery, olive oil, wine, etc.) - Mediterranean maritime cultures include the Minoans (bronze-age mariners from the island of Crete; approximately 2800 to 1450 BC), the Mycenaeans (late Bronze Age of central and southern Greek mainland; 1600-1100 BC), the Greek City-States (iron-age peoples; approximately 700 to 338 BC), and the Phoenicians (1,200 - 333 BC; from coast of Lebanon and northern Israel but settled all over the Mediterranean) C. The Chinese Exploration of the Pacific and Indian Oceans - between 1405 and 1433 the Ming emperors organized seven exploratory voyages in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, involving 37,000 men and 317 ships; headed by Admiral Cheng Ho (Zheng He); the purpose of the voyages was to expand Chinese influence in the region - primarily due to economic problems, the Chinese ended their discovery voyages and increasingly became isolated from the rest of the World D. Exploration of the Atlantic 1. The Vikings - Scandinavian agriculturalists, traders and raiders
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- warming of climates during the late 9th Century AD freed the North Atlantic of ice and the Vikings colonized Iceland; Greenland was colonized by 995 AD - in 995 AD Leif Eriksson sailed westward from Greenland and discovered Vinland (Eastern Canada and/or the northeastern United States); Vikings settled in Newfoundland, until driven off by Native Americans, with final abandonment of the colony around 1020 AD - deteriorating climate in the North Atlantic prevented any further attempts at colonization by the Vikings 2. The "Age of Discovery"
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Oceanography Notes - OCEANOGRAPHY NOTES, PAGE 1 I. The...

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