Photogeology-Remote Sensing

Photogeology-Remote Sensing - REMOTE SENSING LAB PAGE 1...

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REMOTE SENSING LAB, PAGE 1 FIELD GEOLOGY # 3 - REMOTE SENSING AND PHOTOGEOLOGY I. Remote Sensing - collect data from a distance - can cover large areas in short time and output is quickly made for study and comparison - data requires interpretation and ground verification - only for “surface deposits and structures” A. Types of Systems 1. Passive Remote Sensing - remote sensing of energy naturally reflected or radiated from the terrain - include most remote sensing systems 2. Active Remote Sensing - provide their own source of electromagnetic radiation to illuminate the terrain - an example is radar B. Some websites to look at Images Canada Centre for Remote Sensing - http://www.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ (look under imagery on their homepage; also, they have a terrific online shortcourse on remote sensing) Johnson Space Center - http://images.jsc.nasa.gov Jet Propulsion Laboratory - http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Jet Propulsion Laboratory (imaging radar) - http://southport.jpl.nasa.gov/ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration (NOAA) - http.//www.osei.noaa.gov/ EROS Data Center - http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/ II. Satellite Imagery A. Major types of Imagery 1. Multi-spectral Scanning (MSS) - produces pictoral outputs covering 4 spectral bands (this was the primary imaging system in the earlier versions of Landsat; Landsats 1 thru 5 all have MSS) - converts digital data to black-and-white, false-color composites and “true color” prints - imagery available from EROS Data Center (see website above)
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a. Advantages - synoptic view over large area under differing conditions and seasons - high altitude allows regional structures or alignments to be spotted b. Disadvantages - no stereoscopic coverage - obscures structures with highly variable outcrop pattern - cloud cover and vegetation hide terrain - very large scale 2. Thematic Mapper (TM) Imaging System - with 16 detectors for each of the six visible and reflected infrared (IR) bands; was added to Landsats 4 and 5 - Band 7, a reflected IR Band, was added later due to its great value for geologic mapping and mapping hydrothermally-altered rocks associated with mineral deposits B. Types of Satellites 1. Earth Resource Satellites - includes Landsat, SPOT, JERS-1, IRS - provides multispectral images with swaths less than 200 km wide and spatial resolution finer than 100 meters - because of their narrow swaths it takes several weeks to cover the Earth 2. Environmental Satellites - includes GOES, Meteosat, NOAA - provides images with swaths hundreds to thousands of kilometers wide and spatial resolutions coarser than several hundred meters - the entire Earth is covered hourly or daily C. Mapping with TM Images 1. Mapping Lithology - use principles of superposition, the weathering characteristics of beds, and the IR colors to differentiate the formations 2. Mapping Geologic Structure - to determine types of folds study the attitude (strike and dip) of the beds, look at the differences in the width of highlights (narrow, bright signatures) and shadows in the image, and determine
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