1. Intro to Taxonomy

1. Intro to Taxonomy - Systematics-science of the diversity...

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Systematics -science of the diversity of organisms -broad field concerned with plant biodiversity, naming,classification according to evolutionary relationships,and identification of plants -sometimes used interchangeably with taxonomy
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Taxonomy- theory and practice of classifying organisms -study of classification, identification, nomenclature, and floristics Classification- arrangement of plants into groups having common characteristics that express evolutionary relationships Identification or Determination- identifying plants by the recognition of certain characters Nomenclature- naming of organisms according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)
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Floristics- inventory of the native or naturalized plants of an area; called a flora Examples: Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas Shinners and Mahler’s Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas Flora of North America
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Native- plants in an an area prior to European contact Introduced or exotic-non-native plants Naturalized- introduced plants established in native ecosystem Lonicera albiflora and L. sempervirens L. (red) are only native honeysuckles in our area. Three are perfoliate, whereas introduced species are not.
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Primary goals of plant systematics: 1. Identify and describe all plants of world @300,000 species of plants known. Many more undiscovered (15,000 new species in South America alone). @20,000 vascular plants in USA and Canada @5000 (4834) in Texas and 2223 in North Central Texas 2. Develop a uniform, practical, and stable system of naming plants that can be used by both plant taxonomists and others needing to communicate about plants International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) provides rules for naming and classification that is uniform and stable Books and websites allow us to communicate (Appendix 5 and 11) 3. Form groups that reflect their evolutionary relationships
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Taxa are grouped according to two main schools of taxonomists (Read Appendix 6 for details): 1. Traditional taxonomists -use Linnean system of binomial nomenclature and hierarchial ranks to reflect evolutionary history -look at overall similarity or phenetics which may recognize paraphyletic groups like Asclepiadaceae and Reptiles (Fig. 39 And 40) -Cronquist System in Appendix 1 is a widely used traditional classification and uses monophyletic and paraphyletic groups
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Monophyletic group-taxon that includes most recent common ancestor and all its descendents -groups taxonomists try to form -give information that is critical for breeding programs and search for useful products Paraphyletic group-taxon that includes common ancestor but not all its descendents -accepted by traditional taxonomist when group is phenetically different and can be identified by its morphology ex. Birds and Asclepidaceae. Polyphyletic group-taxon having species derived from more
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course BIOL 3154 taught by Professor Allannelson during the Spring '11 term at Tarleton.

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1. Intro to Taxonomy - Systematics-science of the diversity...

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