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CrustDefNotes

# CrustDefNotes - Creates faults Fault – break in rock...

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Chapter 15 Crustal Deformation Deformation (strain) of the earth’s crust occurs in response to stress. Type of deformation dependent on type of strain rate of application temperature Geologists characterize deformation in 3-d by using 2 measurements Strike – orientation (compass direction) of horizontal line on a rock’s surface Dip – maximum angle of inclination of a layer of rock always perpendicular to strike angle of inclination measured in degrees measured down from horizontal to the rock layer. direction of dip is toward “down” side Strike/dip symbol looks like this: Long line indicates direction of strike (North is at top of page) Short line indicates direction of dip Number is degrees of dip Sometimes rocks bend without breaking – DUCTILE deformation Rocks are folded Types of folds Anticline Syncline Monocline Important fold terms Hinge Axis Limb Plunge – an entire fold is tilted so the fold axis/hinge is inclined Asymmetrical Overturned Dome 30

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Basin Sometimes rocks behave in brittle manner and break.
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Unformatted text preview: Creates faults. Fault – break in rock along which movement occurs. Dip-slip fault – all motion is parallel to dip of fault plane. Normal fault – hanging wall goes down. Reverse fault – hanging wall goes up relative to foot wall and fault dip >45° Thrust fault – hanging wall goes up relative to foot wall and fault dip <45° Horst Graben Strike-slip fault – all motion is parallel to strike of fault Fault is usually vertical, so cannot determine foot wall/hanging wall. Named by looking across fault to see what direction other side is moving Left-lateral strike-slip fault – the other side of the fault moves left Right-lateral strike-slip fault – the other side of the fault moves right Oblique-slip fault – motion is diagonal Sometimes rocks break but no movement occurs. Creates fractures. If a geometric pattern is created, fracture system is called joint system. Foot wall Hanging wall...
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CrustDefNotes - Creates faults Fault – break in rock...

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