Minerals - Covalent bonding – atoms/ions “share”...

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Physical Geology Matter and Minerals, Chapter 2 Chemistry Review Atom – smallest part of matter that still retains the characteristics of an element. Nucleus Protons (+) Neutrons (0) Electrons (-) Atomic number Atomic mass number Isotope Electron [Energy] shells contain orbiting electrons 1 st shell (closest to nucleus) has capacity of 2 electrons. Fill first. 2 nd shell has capacity of 8 electrons. 3 rd shell has capacity of 8 electrons, etc. Outermost electrons = valence electrons. Atoms work to achieve full outermost shell. Ion – atom with unequal number of protons and electrons. Has a non-neutral charge. Cation – has positive charge, has shed electrons to gain full outer shell (ex: Na + ) Anion – has negative charge, has gained electrons to fill outer shell (ex: Cl - )
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Compound – 2 or more elements joined in definite proportions Bonding – elements come together to form molecules. Ionic bonding – involves ions that “swap” electrons
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Unformatted text preview: Covalent bonding – atoms/ions “share” electrons Van der Waals bonding – weak chemical bond Metallic bonding – only in metals Minerals – solid, inorganic, naturally-occurring, internal structure, defined composition or one that varies between known endpoints. Characteristics/Physical properties Color Luster Streak Hardness Crystal Form Isomorph Polymorph Cleavage Fracture Specific gravity Other properties Composition most accurate way to identify mineral. Over 98% of earth’s crust composed of only 8 elements! Mineral groups are defined by composition Silicates – silica tetrahedron [silicon-oxygen tetrahedron] Single chain Double chain Sheet Framework (3-d network) Ferromagnesian [single tetrahedron] Oxides Hydroxides Phosphates Sulfides Sulfates Halides Carbonates Native elements...
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Minerals - Covalent bonding – atoms/ions “share”...

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