urogenital

urogenital - 11/22/2011 Kidney functions: regulation of...

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11/22/2011 1 Kidney functions: regulation of water and salt balance within the body elimination of waste Result is the production of urine Urine = water + salts + nitrogenous wastes Nitrogenous wastes = ammonia, uric acid, or urea Salt balance also helped by: Sweat glands mammals Nasal glands birds Rectal glands elasmobranchs Salt-excreting glands marine fish 1) removal of salt from circulatory system 2) removal of excess water from circulatory system Waste elimination: Catabolism of protein -> ammonia Ammonia converted by liver into urea or uric acid Non-toxic product removed by kidney Three types of nitrogen removal in vertebrates: 1. Ammonotelism = direct removal of ammonia Freshwater fish 2. Uricotelism = excretion of uric acid Reptiles & Birds 3. Ureotelism = excretion of urea Mammals, amphibians & marine fish Basic Kidney Structure Functional unit Kidney tubule Renal tubule Nephron Nephron divided into two portions: 1. renal corpuscle composed of the glomerulus and a capsule 2. convoluted tubule drains fluid from the capsule and connects to a series of ducts
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urogenital - 11/22/2011 Kidney functions: regulation of...

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