Possible ID's - Preeti Singh Possible IDs The Articles of...

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Preeti Singh Possible ID’s The Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation, ratified in 1781, cautiously established the first national government by confirming the operations of the Confederation Congress, which, since its formation as the Continental Congress, had formed an army and a navy for defense, declared independence and war, established diplomatic relations with other countries, and adjudicated disputes among a loose association of states. Congress’s inability to tax or enforce requisitions from the states weakened its ability to rule. Moreover, the necessity of unanimous votes for approval of amendments weakened the Congress’s power and thwarted efforts to reform the Articles. Ironically, faced with bankruptcy, Congress innovatively exerted the power the Articles gave it to initiate and control the sale of western lands as a means of enhancing its power and easing its fiscal difficulties. Congress acquired control over a national domain of public lands west of the Appalachians from the Treaty of Paris and various land cessions from individual states. It then established an efficient system for surveying and selling western lands to speculators and settlers. Once an area was settled, Congress organized and supervised territorial governments to administer the population. When the population in these territories reached sixty thousand, Congress allowed territorial residents to write a republican constitution and apply for admission to the Union as a state equal with the others. Through this achievement, the Articles of Confederation turned Americans’ attention to the West and laid the groundwork for the creation of a dynamic republican society and polity. Northwest Ordinance 1787 To the north of Ohio River congress established a national domain, the North west territory, and issued three ordinances for its settlement and administration. The ordinance of 1784 written by Thomas Jefferson called out for the admission of states to carve out their territory as soon as their population equaled that of the smallest existing state. To Possible ID’s - 1 -
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Preeti Singh deter squatters, the land Ordinance of 1785 established a grid surveying system and specified that the land be surveyed before settlement. Land was to be settled in fee simple (a form of tenure giving the owner all ownership rights) and mostly in large blocs, a provision that favored large-scale investors and speculators. The ordinance also embarked funds from the sale of some land for the support of public schools. Finally, the North West that the congress devised in 1787, provided the creation of three to five territories, which would eventually become the state of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. Reflecting the Enlightenment social philosophy of Thomas Jefferson and many other patriots, the new ordinance prohibited slavery in those territories. It specified that a governor and judges rule each territory appointed by congress. Once the number of free adult men reached 5,000 settlers would elect their
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Possible ID's - Preeti Singh Possible IDs The Articles of...

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