history final review

history final review - Emancipation of Russian Serfs Who:...

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Emancipation of Russian Serfs Who : 23 million Russian peasants received their liberty. Tsar Alexander II of Russia abolished serfdom What : When Alexander II freed or emancipated the serfs on private estates and the domestic (household) serfs. Serfs were granted the full rights of free citizens, gaining the rights to marry without having to gain consent, to own property and to own a business. The Russian government bought land from the landowners to give to the serfs, but the serfs were required to repay the Russian government. These repayments took 49 years and the serfs stayed on the land until it was fully repaid. Household serfs were the worst affected as they gained only their freedom and no land. When : There had been opposition to serfdom since the 18 th century. Tsar Alexander II abolished serfdom in 1861 thought it remained a practice for decades to come Where : Russia Why : Like the Ottoman Empire, the Russian empire had economic and technological differences between western Eastern powers. They were determined to preserve Russia’s status as a great land power, so their government decided to reform. The base of their efforts was the emancipation of the serfs. The social reform paved the way for government-sponsored industrialization. The harsh political environment inspired opposition movements that turned extreme in the late nineteenth century and then later turned into a revolution. The main part of social reform in Russia was emancipation of the serfs. More and more people like the radicals and the high officials, were objecting to serfdom not just because of morals but because it had become an obstacle to economic development. In 1861, Tsar Alexander II abolished the institution of serfdom. The government had to compensate the landowners for the loss of their land and the serfs who had worked it. The serfs had few political rights and had to pay back their debts. Some of them were able to prosper but many stayed in debt for the rest of their lives. There was no drastic social reform or increase in agricultural production. White Man’s Burden Who : Rudyard Kipling wrote the poem. The ‘white man’ in the poem was referring to the United States and their conquest of the Philippines. What : When : written in 1899 during the time of European’s colonization of foreign lands (1800s and early 1900s) Where : Writer born in India, studied writing in England, and then returned to India where he wrote the poem. England’s colonization was happening in many places like Africa but more specifically in southern Asia like the Philippines where the poem is referring to. Why : History has stated that Kipling was a believer in philanthropy, or the donating of money or goods for a charitable cause. He wrote this poem in regards to the US Conquest in the Philippines. He wrote this trying to state that the Western culture had an obligation to help those in need, whether the wanted it or not. So he was trying to justify this conquest by expressing our obligation to
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history final review - Emancipation of Russian Serfs Who:...

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