Chapter 8 ENV Review

Chapter 8 ENV Review - Chapter 8 Biodiversity and...

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Chapter 8 – Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Biodiversity Sum total of all organism in an area, accounting for diversity on several levels Levels of biodiversity Species diversity, genetic diversity, and ecosystem diversity Species diversity Number and variety of species in the world or in a particular region Species diversity includes both Species richness and evenness Species richness Number of species Speciation generates__ and adds ____ New species To species richness, while extinction reduces richeness Evenness or relative abundance Extent to which numbers of individuals of different species are equal or skewed Taxonomists Scientists who classify species Genera Related species are grouped together into this Families Related genera are grouped into this Each species has a Two part scientific Latin name: genus and species Humans are Homo sapiens Grey wolves are Canis lupis Tigers are Panther tigris
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Subspecies Population of species that occur in different geographic areas and differ slightly from each other Subspecies are denoted With a third part of the scientic name Dogs are subspecies of Gray wolves: canis lupis familaris Tigers have several subspecies: Panthera tigris, panthera tigris bengalensis, panthera tigris corbetti All tiger subspecies are endangered
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Genetic diversity Differences in DNA among individuals within species and populations Populations with higher genetic diversity are Better able to adapt to environmental change and survive Populations with low genetic diversity are More vulunerable to: environmental change and disease and inbreeding depression Inbreeding depression Genetically similar parents mate and produce defective offspring Ecosystem diversity Number and variety of ecosystems Ecosystem diversity also encompasses Differing biological communities and habitats like sizes, shapes, and interconnectedness of patches within habitats, communities, or ecosystems Which is more diverse A coral reef or a monoculture plantation Species are not Evenly disributed among taxonomic groups Insects predominate and 40% of all insects are beetles New species are due to: Adaptive radiation, allopatric speciation and low rates of extinction Species richness is a good gauge for Overall biodiversity Out of the 5-30 million species on Earth, only 1.7-2 million species have been identified and described Its very difficult to identify species because
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