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e2 - LectureMaterial DefinitionofNVcomm Any interaction in...

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Lecture Material Nonverbal Communication Definition of NV comm Any interaction in which a stimulus, other than words, creates meaning in the mind of a sender or a receiver 2 important elements of def Creation of meaning: Other than words 3 general principles of NV comm 1. NVC is an essential part of determining meaning in comm contexts 2. NVC is typically undervalued 3. NVC is inextricably linked with VC- they function together 3 general sources of NV stimuli Personal NV stimuli- NV behaviors originating from a specific person, ex. When a person winks, shrugs their shoulders, smiles, etc. Vocal NV stimuli- qualities of the voice or vocal sounds separate from a verbal message. ex. Pitch, volume, tone of voice, rate of speech etc. Environmental NV stimuli- NV cues associated w/ the setting or w/ objects in the environment. Ex. Room set=up or state, particular objects, ashtray, present in room Ekman & Knapp’s 6 ways that NV & V cues interact Repeat- (primary) NV message repeats V. Contradict- NV&V disagree- NV cues typically believed over V Substitute- NV used in place of V Complement- NV cue provides supplementary info about V message Accent- draw attention to part of V message Regulate- NV cues regulates V interaction 3 other general NV comm functions:  Status: relational, role, status, differential States:  emotional, physical, awareness not necessary Immediacy:  feelings of warmth, closeness& involvement with others Specific types of NV comm:  ·Kinesics- body movement, includes facial expressions, hand gestures, etc. 5 types (Ekman& Friesen) Emblems- common gestures which substitute for words Illustrators- sued to accompany& complement words, ex. moving your hands to illustrate the concept of waves Regulators- regulate conversation, ex. Eye contact signaling you want to say something Affect displays- facial expressions/ body movements which indicate emotion, ex. Smiling, frowing, shuddering Adaptors- nervous behaviors occurring on a very low level of consciousness, associated with stress, ex. Tapping your foot when nervous without being aware of it
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Paralinguistics- 3 types of paralinguistic cues  Qualities of the voice- e.g. how something’s said, e.g. pitch, tone, volume, rate Vocalics- sounds, other than words, w/ which we associate meaning, e.g. yawning, laughing, sighing, pauses, etc. Non-fluencies- filled pauses, e.g. uh, um, oh, etc. ∙Physical appearance/body type  Physical appearance- dress, grooming, and attractiveness Body type- draw inferences based on general body type: ectomorph, endomorph, mesomorph ∙Oculesics: eye gaze- contact& avoidance ∙Haptics use of touch in comm ∙Chronemics time in comm, several foci: Specific meanings communicated by time, eg. Being late for a date: Cultural emphasis fon time: Psychological time orientation (future, present, or past focus) ∙ Objectics the impact of objects& artifacts on comm: environmental objects, personal ∙ Proxemics/personal space the study of space& distance
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