Lecture note 15 (10-25-2011)

Lecture note 15 (10-25-2011) - MAE 581 Advanced Materials...

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1 MAE 581 Advanced Materials Science Lecture note 15 Thermodynamics of Alloys Equilibrium conditions The concept of equilibrium thermodynamics: Equilibrium Thermodynamics is the systematic study of transformations of matter and energy in systems as they approach equilibrium. The word equilibrium implies a state of balance. In an equilibrium state there are no unbalanced potentials, or driving forces, within the system. An equilibrium state is obtained by seeking the extrema of a thermodynamic potential function, whose nature depends on the constraints imposed on the system. For example, a chemical reaction at constant temperature and pressure will reach equilibrium at a minimum of its components' Gibbs free energy and a maximum of their entropy. Thus: Under equilibrium thermodynamics, the thermodynamic state variables of a system, such as temperature, pressure, or volume, etc., will be considered uniform. Typically, systems are studied as they change from one state to another. The entropy S has a maximum value under equilibrium thermodynamics in an isolated system In alloys, equilibrium is more frequently established at constant temperature that is in contact with a thermostat (or furnace). If in a reaction the volume (as well as the number of particles)
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