GMT_107_-_Module_2_-_Supplementary_Notes

GMT_107_-_Module_2_-_Supplementary_Notes - GMT 107 –...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: GMT 107 – Pakistan Studies / Fall 2010 Module 2: Political History of Pakistan Supplementary Notes P O L I T I C A L T I M E L I N E O F P A K I S T A N 1947-1958: First wave of democracy Main events: 1948 – Objectives Resolution passed; 1953: Lahore Ahmedi riots took place, which later became of the main cause of political instability; 1954 – One Unit scheme introduced in West Pakistan to provide parity with East Pakistan;1956 – First Constitution of Pakistan is promulgated – its calls for a parliamentary form of government with a unicameral legislature; 1958 – Iskander Mirza dissolves the elected assembly on charges of corruption and political instability and imposes martial law, Ayub Khan takes over shortly afterward. Characteristics of the political arrangement: Pakistan faces a number of challenges at independence: a need to develop a strong national force to bind the newly independent country despite regional and ethnic differences; influx of migrants from partition – 1 in every 5 Pakistanis is a migrant. The govt has to provide the refugees with foods, shelter, basic services, land and create job opportunities; Insecurity viz a viz disputes with India and Afghanistan emphasized the need to strength Pakistan’s military capacity; Pakistan lacked serious apparatus needed for rapid development and therefore, efforts were made to set up industries and vitalize the economy of the country; The new government also had to create a governance and service infrastructure – in both physical and human resource capacities- while addressing all of these problems. Democracy develops fragile roots in the new nation – elected officials and cabinets are dismissed with frequency. During this period, Pakistan sees 6 prime ministers and 4 governor generals. All dismissals are carried out by the state apparatus dominated by the civil bureaucracy and influenced by the military. The civil bureaucracy, which used to exercise the real administrative and political control during the British rule, was intent on playing the prime governance task in place of elected officials. Governor- generals Ghulam Muhammad and Iskander Mirza, both former bureaucrats, thought the politicians to be opportunist, incompetent and corrupt, and frequently used old laws to dismiss elected officials. The military was increasingly involved in the major-decision making in the country and shared the bureaucracy’s contempt for politicians. A major rift opened between West Pakistan and East Pakistan over sharing political power. The new political arrangement was dominated by politicians, military leaders and bureaucrats primarily drawn from Punjab and Sindh in Pakistan. Equal power sharing arrangements between the two wings could not be agreed upon and regional identities (e.g. Bengali and Pushtun) were suppressed in favour of a national Pakistani identity....
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 01/17/2012 for the course MASS COMMU 107 taught by Professor Masror during the Spring '11 term at College of E&ME, NUST.

Page1 / 7

GMT_107_-_Module_2_-_Supplementary_Notes - GMT 107 –...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online