Ch 5 Psychological_testing_Relia_n_Validity_

Ch 5 Psychological_testing_Relia_n_Validity_ - Chapter 5...

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Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Essentials of Essentials of Psychological Psychological Testing Testing
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What is a Psychological What is a Psychological Test? Test? Definition of a test A psychological test is essentially an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior. In other words, a psychological test is a Sample of behavior Sample is obtained under standardized conditions There exists established rules for scoring information obtained from sample It contains stimuli or set of items to measure characteristics of human beings that pertain to his / her behavior or self. There are many types of behavior both overt and covert which collectively can be measured by various tests.
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Criteria and Standard for Using Criteria and Standard for Using Psychological Testing Psychological Testing Standardization in test administration, scoring and reporting Validity Reliability Test Development and Revision Norms development, score comparability and equating Test Publication: technical manuals and users guide
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Technical and Technical and methodological principles methodological principles 1. Standardization It implies uniformity of procedures in administering and scoring the test. An important step in standardization of a test is the establishment of norms. As the name shows the word “norms” mean normal or average performance. The main purpose of the norms is to evaluate the relative standing or performance of an individual by comparison with the behavior or characteristics of others. Interpretation of scores, administration and scoring has to be objective and should be independent of the subjective judgment of the particular examiner.
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Sources of inconsistency in Sources of inconsistency in test scores test scores If there are no errors in measurement Classical Test Theory assumes that each individual has a true score. However as our measuring instruments are imperfect the test scores obtained by an individual may differ from one’s true ability or characteristics. The formula is X = Observed score T = True Score E = Error The following constitute error of measurement in test scores.
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A particular test format or particular sample of test items. A state of health, fatigue, test taking skills, anxiety, emotional strain, motivation, and environmental conditions (heat, light, ventilation etc). The mental set of examinees. Testing conditions, timing of the test , test instructions, amount of noise and distraction etc. Guessing on the part of the examinee or some other unusual source of distraction
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Objectivity in evaluation also means determining the validity and reliability of a test in specified situation.
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