Distillation week 14 - Distillation Usama Farooq Week 14...

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Distillation Usama Farooq Week 14
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Distillation Distillation is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation is a physical separation process, and not a chemical reaction. Uses:- 1. Crude oil 2. Water is distilled to remove impurities 3. Air is distilled to separate its components 4. Distillation of fermented solutions to produce distilled beverages with a higher alcohol content. The premises where distillation is carried out, especially distillation of alcohol, are known as a distillery .
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Typical Distillation Setup
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VARIOUS TYPES OF DISTILLATION Simple Distillation Molecular Distillation Vacuum Distillation Batch Distillation Continuous Distillation Flash Distillation Fractional Distillation Azeotropic Distillation
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Simple Distillation Single Vaporization/Condensation cycle of a mixture that produces a distillate that is always impure Therefore, it is impossible to completely separate the components in a mixture with Simple Distillation Relatively pure substances can be obtained from a mixture with Simple Distillation if the boiling points of the components differ by a large amount (>100 o C) If a small increment of the initial distillate is separated and redistilled and this process is repeated many times, effectively producing multiple sequential Vaporization/ Condensation Cycles, an increasingly pure solution can be attained.
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Fractional Distillation Accomplishes the same thing as Multiple Simple Sequential Vaporization / Condensation Cycles, by inserting a Fractionating Column (a Vigreux Column) between the Distillation Flask and the Distillation Head. The Fractionating Column, of which there are many types containing a variety of packing materials, subjects the mixture to many Vaporization/Condensation Cycles as the material moves up the column toward the Distillation Head, which is attached to the Condenser. With each cycle within the column, the composition of the vapor is progressively enriched in the lower boiling liquid. This process continues until most of the lower boiling compound is removed from the original mixture and condensed in the receiving flask
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Schematic of Distillation
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Fractional Distillation (Cont.) When the lower boiling liquid is effectively removed from the original mixture, the temperature rises and a second fraction containing some of both compounds is produced. As the temperature approaches the boiling point of the higher boiling point compound, the distillate condensing into the third receiving flask is increasingly pure in the higher boiling point compound. Column Efficiency:- A common measure of the efficiency of a Fractionation Column is given by its number of Theoretical Plates One Theoretical Plate is equivalent to a Simple Distillation, i.e., one Vaporization / Condensation Cycle. The smaller the boiling point difference, the greater the number of theoretical plates a fractionating column must have to achieve separation of mixtures
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2012 for the course MASS COMMU 107 taught by Professor Masror during the Spring '11 term at College of E&ME, NUST.

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Distillation week 14 - Distillation Usama Farooq Week 14...

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