23-divers&systemoutl - 2 paraphyletic 3...

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BIOL V03: Phylogeny & Systematics (SBM9-Ch 23) copyright © 2011 Marta D. de Jesus (don’t read the section on molecular homologies in 23.3) I. How do we group organisms? A. phylogeny systematics B. taxonomy 1. Linnaeus 2. classification a. taxon b. Remember: KPCOFGS 3. “splitters” vs. “lumpers” C. evolution of kingdom categories Aristotle ~350 BC Haeckel 1866 Chatton 1937 Copeland 1930s Whittaker 1959 3 domains (Woese 1977) Carol Bult Mitchell Sogin -> 6 kingdoms Lake’s 4 domains Cavalier-Smith’s further complications a. horizontal gene transfers b. genome fusions clades
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what your text is using for classification [AppB] II. Modern classification A. words for defining types of relationships in phylogenetic trees 1. monophyletic
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Unformatted text preview: 2. paraphyletic 3. polyphyletic B. use homology problem: analogous/homoplastic structures C. kinds of classification schemes 1. phenetic/evolutionary systematics 2. cladistics a. clade b. cladogram 1) synapomorphies 2) (sym)plesiomorphies 3) outgroup III. Types of data used A. morphological: B. biochemical 1. carbohydrates 2. lipids 3. proteins 4. DNA C. physiology D. other responses to environmental stimuli IV. Resulting Trees A. Kinds of trees 1. cladogram 2. phylogram 3. ultrametric tree B. methods of generating trees 1. distance 2. maximum parsimony 3. maximum likelihood C. all trees are hypotheses D. make sure you understand how to read a phylogenetic tree...
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