23-divers-systematicsmod

23-divers-systematicsmod - Phenetics/evolutionary...

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Ch 23: Understanding Diversity: Systematics
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phylogeny systematics taxonomy taxon
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How to categorize life? life vs. non-life (?prehistory) plants (non-motile) vs. animals (motile) Greek philosophers including Aristotle ( born 384 - died 322 BC )
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prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells (Chatton 1937)
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reorganized classification into 4 kingdoms (Copeland 1930s?) 5 kingdoms; adding Fungi (Whittaker 1959)
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3 domains (Carl Woese 1977) Carol J. Bult
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further elaborated by Mitchell Sogin (early eukaryotes) & many others
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-> 6 kingdoms (compromise) still argued: Lake’s 4 domains, Cavalier-Smith & others’ > 6 kingdoms
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horizontal gene transfers genome fusions clades?
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Groups of organisms on a phylogenetic tree (excluded)
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Homologous structures 18-13 terrestrial vertebrate forelimbs 18-14 modified leaves
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Australian marsupial “mole” N American placental mole Homoplasies = analogous structures 18-16 spiky plant parts
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Unformatted text preview: Phenetics/evolutionary systematics numerical taxonomy eg: Birds -> different enough to be a separate class from reptiles Cladistic systematics clade cladogram synapomorphy vs. (sym)plesiomorphy outgroup parsimony eg: Birds -> sub-group of Reptile class Morphology Morphology: Developmental data eg: early animal embryo cleavage (30-5) Biochemistry: Lipids 2 species of Pseudomonas Biochemistry: Proteins eg: Isozyme patterns from a fungus Biochemistry: Proteins eg: amino acid sequence comparison myoglobin Biochemistry: Proteins eg: 3D structure comparison Relationships between canids using DNA sequences Biochemistry: DNA Sequence analysis Stoneking, et al. Mitochondrial DNA study of humans 2 representations of the same data Phylogram - shows genetic change Ultrametric tree - shows time Other kinds of trees Methods of generating trees Distance Parsimony Maximum likelihood...
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2012 for the course BIOL V04 taught by Professor De-jesus,m during the Fall '08 term at Ventura College.

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23-divers-systematicsmod - Phenetics/evolutionary...

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