bio - Evolution of the Brain and Behavior BRW: Chapter 6 A...

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Unformatted text preview: Evolution of the Brain and Behavior BRW: Chapter 6 A useful website: A History of Evolutionary Thought http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/evothought.html Two views of life Static view The Great Chain of Being Linnaeuss classiFcation system The Argument from Design Dynamic view Evolutionary theories before Darwin Darwins theory of Natural Selection Charles Darwin (1809-1892) Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) The Origin of Species (1859) There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the Fxed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved. Darwins Infuences Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) Populations increase geometrically Food supply increases arithmetically. Adam Smith (1723-1790) The Wealth of Nations (1776) Laissez-faire economics He [person in economy] generally indeed neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it. He intends his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was not part of his intention. Artifcial Selection: Pigeons The Three Principle Components of Darwins Theory The Principle of Variation : Different individuals within a species differ from one another in physiology and behavior. The Principle of Heredity : The variation is in some way heritable, so that on the average offspring resemble their parents more than they resemble other individuals. The Principle of Natural Selection : Different variations leave different numbers of offspring either immediately or in remote generations. Darwins theory of sexual selection: The Descent of Man (1871) Natural selection refers to a struggle for survival. Sexual selection refers to a struggle for reproductive advantage: Male-male competition Female choice Tinbergens four questions Two Basic Categories for Describing Evolutionary Relationships Among Structures Homology Similarities in features due to common evolutionary heritage. Example: Bat wing and human arm. Analogy Independent evolution of functionally similar characteristics (convergent evolution). Example: Bird wing and insect wing. Classifcation oF some animal species The Argument from Design William Paley (1743-1805) : There cannot be a design w i t h o u t a d e s i g n e r ; c o n t r i v a n c e w i t h o u t a contriver Design must have had a designer. That designer must have been a person. That person is God. Charles Darwin (1808-1892): To suppose that the eye, with a l l i t s i n i m i t a b l e contrivances..., could have b e e n f o r m e d b y n a t u r a l selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest possible degree. Intermediate forms Imperfect Design The blind spot David Hume, Dialogues concerning natural religion (1776): for all we know, our world was only the Frst rude essay of some...
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bio - Evolution of the Brain and Behavior BRW: Chapter 6 A...

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