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notes for final - Management 291 Final Exam Notes March 28...

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Management 291 Final Exam Notes March 28 Chapter 10—(261-268) Advantages and Disadvantages of Group-Aided Decision Making Individual o Faster o More efficient o Tasks or decision that are simple/easy o Clear who is accountable/liable Group o Best for complex decisions o Greater pool of knowledge—more information and experience o Increased acceptance o Training ground—helps to train less experienced employees Groups performance was generally qualitatively and quantitatively superior to the performance of an individual** o Contingent recommendations (group or individual?) Time sensitive—individual Group—promotions, qualifying for a loan Drawbacks for groups: o Social loafing Pressure to conform may stifle the creativity of individuals Group-think—lack of sound decisions Logrolling—politics within group Domination by only a few Participative Management –whereby employees play a direct role in: o Setting goals o Making decisions o Solving problems o Making changes in organizations Group Problem solving techniques: Consensus—presenting opinions and gaining agreement to support a decision Brainstorming—process to generate a quantity of ideas, not appropriate for EVALUATING alternatives o Formal process o Effective b/c I helps reduce interference caused by critical and judgmental reactions o Build on ideas of others, quantity over quality, one conversation at a time Nominal Group Technique—process to generate ideas and evaluate decisions o Reduces roadblocks by: Separating brainstorming from evaluation Promoting balanced participation Incorporating math techniques to reach consensus
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Delphi Technique—process to generate ideas from physically dispersed experts o Ideas are obtained from questionnaires or via the internet o As opposed to face to face group discussions (when face to face is impractical) Group Think Escalation of bias commitment is very involved in group think 8 symptoms o Illusion of vulnerability o Rationalization o Unquestioned belief in the morality of the group (inherent morality) o Stereotype opposition o Pressures o Self censorship o Illusions of unanimity Silence is viewed as agreement o Mind guards The Challenger Video—examples of symptoms o Common goal—landing on moon—return him safe on earth o Pressures “Let’s put on our management hats…” o Illusion of vulnerability NASA has been successful for so long. Nothing will go wrong o Stereotype Management vs. engineering Get on board with our decision (inappropriate) o Pressure Had already been delayed o Mindguards Memo that never got to NASA—concerns Consequences o No alternative solutions generated o Creativity stifled o Lacks outside point of view o People only looking at information that supports the decision Ways to avoid Group think o Invite outside/expert perspectives o Take the decisions out to workplace for feedback o Assign devil’s advocate—purpose is to question everything
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notes for final - Management 291 Final Exam Notes March 28...

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