C111_8 - Periodic Table Arranges elements in order of...

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Periodic Table Arranges elements in order of increasing atomic number, Z. Z is same as number of electrons in atom. Number and location of electrons determine an element’s reactivity and other chemical properties. Many facts can be known from element’s position on periodic table.
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Facts predicted by periodic table Properties of a sample of the element Atomic size Most likely ions formed. Tendency of atom to gain or lose electrons How many outer shell electrons are there? Types of compounds formed.
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Review of Periodic Trends: Categories of Elements Main group elements, also called representative elements: 1A through 7A Noble gases: 8A Transition metals: 1B through 8B Lanthanides and actinides: the “f-block” elements
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Review: Groups With Special Names 1A : alkali metals, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr 2A: alkaline earths, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra 6A: chalcogens: O, S, Se, Te, Po 7A: halogens: F, Cl, Br, I, As 8A: noble gases (“inert”) He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn transition metals (long central block in middle) lanthanides (“rare earth metals”) actinides (“transuranics”)
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Review: Representing Elements in  Chemical Equations Give simplest formula of actual state. All metals and some non-metals: exist as large groups of identical atoms Use empirical formula: Fe (s) C (graphite) He (g) Use actual molecular formula for all others: – Diatomic gases: H 2 (g) , O 2 (s) , N 2 (s) – P 4 (s) (sometimes S, sometimes S 8 (s) )
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New Concept: Valence Electrons Valence electrons are outer shell. These electrons involved in chemical bonds. All s and p electrons in outer shell are valence electrons. Main group elements have valence electrons equal to group number. Group 5A: 5 valence shell electrons. ns 2 np 3 Group 1A: 1 valence shell electron. ns 1
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Common Ions of the Elements:  Atoms tend toward certain electron configurations Electron configurations explain the most common ions of the elements. “Noble” gas configurations are most stable for ions of main group elements. H:
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2012 for the course CHEM 111 taught by Professor Lemaster during the Fall '08 term at Boise State.

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C111_8 - Periodic Table Arranges elements in order of...

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