chpt6 JHD 2006

chpt6 JHD 2006 - 6-6-1Reactions Reactions of Alkenesof...

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Unformatted text preview: 6-6-1Reactions Reactions of Alkenesof AlkenesChapter 6Chapter 66-6-2Characteristic ReactionsCharacteristic ReactionsCCCCCCBr2(HX)HClH2O(X2)CCBr2(X2)H2O(X)CCHOHCCBrBr (X)CCHOBr (X)CCHCl (X)Descriptive Name(s )React ion+++Bromination(halogenation)Hydrochlorination(hydrohalogenation)Hydration+Bromo(halo)hydrinformation6-6-3Characteristic ReactionsCharacteristic ReactionsCCCCCCBH3OsO4H2CCHg(OAc)2H2OCCBH2HCCHOOHCCHHCCHOHgOAc+++HydroborationDiol formation(oxidation)Hydrogenation(reduction)+Oxymercuration6-6-4Reaction MechanismsReaction MechanismsA reaction mechanism describes how a reaction occurswhich bonds are broken and which new ones are formedthe order and relative rates of the various bond-breaking and bond-forming stepsif in solution, the role of the solventif there is a catalyst, the role of a catalystthe position of all atoms and energy of the entire system during the reaction6-6-5Gibbs Free EnergyGibbs Free EnergyGibbs free energy change, Gibbs free energy change, GG::a thermodynamic function relating enthalpy, entropy, and temperatureexergonic reaction:exergonic reaction:a reaction in which the Gibbs free energy of the products is lower than that of the reactants; the position of equilibrium for an exergonic reaction favors productsendergonic reaction:endergonic reaction:a reaction in which the Gibbs free energy of the products is higher than that of the reactants; the position of equilibrium for an endergonic reaction favors starting materialsG = H TS6-6-6Gibbs Free EnergyGibbs Free Energya change in Gibbs free energy is directly related to chemical equilibriumsummary of the relationships between G, H, S, and the position of chemical equilibriumG = -RT ln KeqAt higher temperatureswhen TS > H and G < 0, the position of equilibrium favorsproductsG > 0; theposition of equilibriumfavors reactantsG < 0; theposition of equilibriumfavors productsAt lower temperatures whenTS < H andG < 0, the position of equilibrium favorsproductsH > 0H < 0S < 0S > 06-6-7Energy DiagramsEnergy DiagramsEnthalpy change, Enthalpy change, : : the difference in total bond energy between reactants and productsa measure of bond making (exothermic) and bond breaking (endothermic)Heat of reaction, Heat of reaction, ::the difference in enthalpy between reactants and productsexothermic reaction:exothermic reaction:a reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is lower than that of the reactants; a reaction in which heat is releasedendothermic reactionendothermic reaction:a reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is higher than that of the reactants; a reaction in which heat is absorbed6-6-8Energy DiagramsEnergy DiagramsEnergy diagram:Energy diagram:a graph showing the changes in energy that occur during a chemical reactionReaction coordinate:Reaction coordinate:a measure in the change in positions of atoms during a reactionReactioncoordinateEnergy6-...
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2012 for the course CHEM 111 taught by Professor Lemaster during the Fall '08 term at Boise State.

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chpt6 JHD 2006 - 6-6-1Reactions Reactions of Alkenesof...

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