chem bonding - A: to be happy (stable) atoms are social...

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Unformatted text preview: A: to be happy (stable) atoms are social creatures. Some share, some take but there is almost always interaction To be Happy is to be stable Cl 2 Chlorine gas is very toxic Na is a highly explosive metal, even in water But Na + Cl 2 makes NaCl which is table salt. So we take a poison gas and an explosive metal, react them, and then put it on our food. How is this possible? Because they become STABLE Atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons in their valence shells in order to have a full electron valence shell. This is usually 8 electrons, hence the octet rule When atoms valence shells are full, they are stable, and happy Reactions which require energy from their environment to occur are Endothermic Reactions which release a net amount of energy into the environment are Exothermic Note: this energy is almost always in the form of heat, but is sometimes electrochemical (release or require electron flow) or chemiluminescent (require or release of light) A bond formed between 2 or more atoms, by the sharing, or transfer of 1 or more electrons in order to satisfy the octet rule Important note: All chemical bonding occurs in the valence shell electrons (VSE). That is those electrons that are found in the outer most shell Whenever elements come in contact with each other, they compete for electrons all based on electronegativity : the ability of an atom to take and hold electrons. The results are chemical bonds A: because the Valence shell electrons (VSE) are getting closer to the nucleus, so the attraction is greater A: because there are more protons in the nucleus so the positive force is greater BY FAR, as the electrons get closer the attractive force gets greater. This has a far greater impact than simply adding a proton to the nucleus Ionic Covalent (to a lesser extent) hydrogen Metallic A bond formed from a SEQUENTIAL transfer of electrons and electrostatic attraction. The sequence: 1) Transfer of one or more electrons 2) Ion formation 3) Attraction Tend to occur between metals and nonmetals (some occur between nonmetals and polyatomic ions) Always occur between oppositely charged particles (called ions) Tend to be VERY polar compounds Result as a difference in electronegativity Usually dissociate easily in water, but remain stable ions Usually good conductors of electricity in water Tend to be brittle compounds with significant (and identifiable) crystalline structures, called lattices 1) Electrons are transferred:...
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chem bonding - A: to be happy (stable) atoms are social...

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