Solution chemistry

# Solution chemistry - Solutions TheirBehavior and Solution Solvent Solute homogeneous mixture single phase(gas liquid or solid two or more

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Solutions and Their Behavior Solution : homogeneous mixture single phase (gas, liquid or solid) two or more substances Solvent : component in greater concentration Solute: component in lesser concentration Concentration Units: Molarity: moles per liter M ; mol / L Molality: moles solute / Kg solvent = m Percent by mass ("weight percent") parts per thousand (ppt) parts per million (ppm) (ppb, pptr, ppq, etc.) Solubility: amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent (e.g. 100 g water). Depends on temp. Example: Find % (wt/wt), molarity and molality of a solution made by adding 50.00 g pure H 2 SO 4 to water making a total solution mass of 250.0 g at 20.00 o C. Solution density = 1.1394 g/mL (Ans: 20 %; 2.325 M; 2.55 m) Express the concentration of the above solution as ppm SO 4 2− : 1

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(Ans: 2x10 5 ppm) What is the mole fraction of H 2 SO 4 in the above solution? (Ans: 0.0439 (unitless)) Relative degrees of concentration: dilute: unsaturated: concentrated: saturated: supersaturated: Liquid-liquid solutions :miscible vs. immiscible "like dissolves like" Solids dissolving in liquids : molecular; ionic must overcome lattice forces must have favorable solvation forces must overcome water-water interaction Two "Thought Experiments" 2
MX (s) M n+ (aq) + X n- (aq) 1. Hess's law: solid atoms (g) ions (g) ions (aq) Enthalpy of overall process = Σ (enthalpies of the steps) 2. Heats of formation: H

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## This note was uploaded on 01/18/2012 for the course CHEM 112 taught by Professor Lemaster during the Spring '08 term at Boise State.

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Solution chemistry - Solutions TheirBehavior and Solution Solvent Solute homogeneous mixture single phase(gas liquid or solid two or more

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