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TRO Lecture _04 part 2

TRO Lecture _04 part 2 - Categories of Aqueous Reactions...

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Categories of Aqueous Reactions: Predicting products and balancing Double displacement “Metathesis” Precipitation Forming a gas Forming a very weak electrolyte or non-electrolyte molecular species Oxidation-Reduction “Redox” Electrons are exchanged Acid-base: Acid provides H+ Base provides OH- Combine to produce H 2 O
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Bases Three kinds of bases in water: Metal hydroxides ionize to release OH- Example: NaOH Na+ + OH- Some uncharged bases hydrolyze water: NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH- Same anions can hydrolyze water: PO 3 3- + H 2 O HPO 3 2- + OH-
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Double Displacement Reactions “Metathesis” Determine the ions involved Are any ions “spectators”? Can a product form that is a precipitate, a gas or a weakly (or non-) ionizing cmpd? We have already done precipitate-forming reactions. Example:
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4 2 KI( aq ) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) PbI 2 ( s ) + 2 KNO 3 ( aq )
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5 Precipitation Reactions, examples:
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6 Ionic and Net Ionic Equations Equations that describe the chemicals put into the water and the product molecules are called molecular equations . 2 KOH( aq ) + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) 2 KNO 3 ( aq ) + Mg(OH) 2 ( s ) Equations that describe the actual dissolved species are called complete ionic equations . Aqueous strong electrolytes are written as ions. soluble salts, strong acids, strong bases Insoluble substances, weak electrolytes, and nonelectrolytes are written in molecule form. solids, liquids, and gases are not dissolved, therefore, molecule form 2 K + ( aq ) + 2 OH ( aq ) + Mg 2+ ( aq ) + 2 NO 3 ( aq ) 2 K + ( aq ) + 2 NO 3 ( aq ) + Mg(OH) 2( s )
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7 Ionic Equations Ions that are both reactants and products are called spectator ions . 2 K + ( aq ) + 2 OH ( aq ) + Mg 2+ ( aq ) + 2 NO 3 ( aq ) 2 K + ( aq ) + 2 NO 3 ( aq ) + Mg(OH) 2( s ) An ionic equation in which the spectator ions are removed is called a net ionic equation . 2 OH ( aq ) + Mg 2+ ( aq ) Mg(OH) 2 ( s )
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8 Write the ionic and net ionic equation for each. K 2 SO 4 ( aq ) + 2 AgNO 3 ( aq ) 2 KNO 3 ( aq ) + Ag 2 SO 4 ( s ) Ionic equation: 2 K + + SO 4 2- + 2 Ag + + 2 NO 3 - 2 K + + 2 NO 3 - + Ag 2 SO 4 (s) Net Ionic equation : SO 4 2- + 2 Ag+ Ag 2 SO 4 (s) Na 2 CO 3 ( aq ) + 2 HCl( aq ) 2 NaCl( aq ) + CO 2 ( g ) + H 2 O( l )
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9 Acid–Base Reactions also called neutralization reactions because the acid and base neutralize each other’s properties 2 HNO 3 ( aq ) + Ca(OH) 2 ( aq ) Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + 2 H 2 O( l ) the net ionic equation for an acid–base reaction is H + ( aq ) + OH - ( aq ) H 2 O( l ) when the salt that forms is soluble in water
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10 Acids and Bases in Solution Acids ionize in water to form H + ions. H+ from the acid molecule is donated to a water molecule hydronium ion, H 3 O + .
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