DSC 205 Study Guide

DSC 205 Study Guide - DSC 205 Study Guide Chapter 1...

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DSC 205 Study Guide Chapter 1 Descriptive Statistics: 1.) Tabulating or graphing the general characteristics of a set of data 2.) Describing some characteristics of this set such as measures of tendency or dispersion Deductive: Deduce the properties of a sample of observation from the known characteristics of the population Inductive: Reverse procedure from deductive Start with a sample and try to draw conclusions about the properties of the population based on characteristics of the sample Chapter 2 Population: Set/collection of all possible observations of a specific Sample: a portion of the population Sampling Design: set of decisions that must be made before the data are collected Elementary Unity: person/object that from which a measurement is taken Qualitive: Characteristics/variable being studied is non-numerical Quantative: Variable being studied can be expressed numerically 1) Continuous: all values within an interval ex: Volume of fluid in bottle 2) Discrete: ex: number of children in family Dichotomous: Two categories Multinumeral: more than two categories Nominal Data: Represent class or category, verbal or numerical codes ex:Toyota, hyuandi Ordinal Data: Values or labels ranked in a meaningful way ex: best to worst steelers browns Interval: Assign meaning to distance between two observations always numerical, not ratios ex: temperatures in five different cities at the same time Ratio:

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Strongest scale of measurement, distance between pairs of data and ratios of values are meaningful. *always numerical ex: Salary 25,000 is 2x salary of 12,500 Taking Sample Vs. Population Less expensive, faster, less numbers, more accurate Parameter: describes some characteristic of a population ex: mode Sampling Bias: If obtained by a method that favors a selection of elementary units carrying specific characteristics. Solution Random Sample Data Acquisition Personal interviews/Self-enumeration/Sampling quotas-filling quotas thought to reflect the population Probability Selected items that determine based on randomization or chance procedure Non-probability 1) Convenience Sample: elementary units are acquired simply/conveniently 2)
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