Chapter 02 test slides

Chapter 02 test slides - Neural Communication The body's...

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8 Neural Communication The body’s information system is built from billions of  interconnected cells called  neurons .  The neuron, or nerve  cell, is the basic building block of the nervous system.   neural impulse fires when a neuron is stimulated by  pressure, heat, light, or chemicals. 
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11 Neuron  A nerve cell, or a neuron, consists of many different  parts.
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12 Parts of a Neuron  Cell Body :   Life support center of the neuron. Dendrites:    Branching extensions at the cell body.  Receive messages from other neurons. Axon:    Long single extension of a neuron, covered with  myelin [MY-uh-lin] sheath,   a fatty tissue  which    insulates  and  speeds up  messages from neuron to   neurons. Terminal Branches of Axon:   Branched endings of an  axon that transmit messages to other neurons.
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13 Action Potential Neurons communicate with one another through the  transmission of  electrical signals or impulses.  An  action  potential  is a neural impulse.    It is a brief electrical  charge that travels down an axon.   It is generated by the  movement of positively charged ions  into  and  out  of  channels in the axon’s membrane. 
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14 Depolarization & Hyperpolarization  The   interior  of a resting neuron has mostly  negatively  charged ions,  while the fluid  outside  of the neuron has  mostly  positively charged ions.   Depolarization  occurs when  positive ions  enter the neuron,  making it  more prone to fire an action potential.  Hyperpolarization  occurs when  negative ions  enter the  neuron, making it  less prone to fire an action potential.
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15 Threshold  Threshold:   Each neuron receives depolarizing and  hyperpolarizing currents from many neurons. When the  depolarizing current ( positive ions ) minus the  hyperpolarizing current ( negative ions ) exceed  minimum intensity ( threshold ), the neuron fires an  action potential. Messages from adjacent neurons trigger an impulse  only if their sum is  larger  than the  threshold  (minimum intensity needed).
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18 Synapse  Neurons don’t actually touch one another. A tiny, fluid- filled gap (synaptic gap) separates the two neurons. A  Synapse [SIN-aps]   is   a   junction between the axon tip of  the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the  receiving neuron.  This tiny gap is called the  synaptic  gap  or  cleft.
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19 Neurotransmitters When a neuron transmits a signal  or electrical charge, an impulse  travels along the neuron’s axon.  When the impulse reaches the  axon terminal, chemicals called  neurotransmitters  are released  into the synapse.   Neurotransmitters (chemicals),  released from the sending neuron, 
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