Chapter 08 test slides

Chapter 08 test slides - Definitions What is learning and...

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6 Definitions What is learning and conditioning? Learning   is a   relatively permanent change in an  organism’s behavior due to experience and/or practice. Conditioning  is the forming of associations or learning. Learning is more flexible  in comparison to the  genetically-programmed behaviors of some animals.   Learning helps us adapt to our environment.
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Types of Learning I. Classical Conditioning :  We learn  associations between events. II. Operant Conditioning :  We learn to engage  in behavior that is reinforced and avoid  behavior that is punished. III.Observational Learning :  We learn by  observing and imitating others. 8
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10 I.  Classical Conditioning:  Stimulus-Stimulus Learning Learning to associate one stimulus with another.
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12 II. Operant Conditioning:  Response-Consequence Learning Learning to associate a response (or a behavior) with  a consequence.
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III. Observational Learning In  observational  learning,   we learn by  observing and  imitating others. This 14-month-old child  imitates the adult on  TV by pulling a toy  apart. 13
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16 Pavlov’s Experiments Before conditioning, food (Unconditioned Stimulus,  US produces salivation (Unconditioned Response,  UR ).    However, the tone (neutral stimulus) does  not.
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17 Pavlov’s Experiments During conditioning, the neutral stimulus (tone) and the  US  (food) are paired, resulting in salivation ( UR ).  After conditioning, the neutral stimulus (now called the  Conditioned Stimulus,  CS ) elicits salivation (now called  the Conditioned Response,  CR ).
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Classical Conditioning • Through classical conditioning, organisms learn  to  anticipate  and  prepare  for certain events.   They learn to associate two events.   Classical conditioning always involves a  reflexive behavior  (e.g., a eye blink from a puff  of air; shivering when cold; salivating when  seeing/smelling food).  Classical conditioning produces an automatic  response (a reflex) to a stimulus.  18
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Classical Conditioning • Classical conditioning occurs when a  neutral  stimulus  is conditioned so that it will then  elicit an  automatic response. Remember:   The neutral stimulus (e.g., a  bell) does not automatically trigger a  reflex. • After conditioning, the neutral stimulus has  been associated with a stimulus that will  automatically trigger a response.  19
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Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus (US):    A   stimulus (e.g., food) that  automatically triggers a response or reflex. Unconditioned Response (UR):
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Chapter 08 test slides - Definitions What is learning and...

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