ANTH 101 test 2 study guide

ANTH 101 test 2 study guide - 1. H. habilis The name means...

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1. H. habilis The name means "handy man," originating from the belief that this species was the first to produce stone tools. Discovered by Mary and Louis Leakey in 1962. Arguably the oldest known member of the homo genus, habilis lacks many qualities of later human ancestors, including bone structures useful for bipedalism and shorter arms than legs. H. habilis were first of genus homo, and were found in Africa between 2.3 and 1.8 million years ago. Most of the fossils we have found during this era were H. habilis. H. habilis had larger brains, smaller teeth, higher skulls, less protruding faces, longer legs, and shorter arms than Australopithecines. They were omnivores, who mainly hunted small animals, built shelters, and most importantly made fairly sophisticated stone tools called Oldowan Tools. 2. H. neanderthalensis (Neanderthal) 200 lbs, smaller brains than humans. Incapable of communicating in complex manners. Lived at the same time as homo sapiens between 130,000 and 35,000 years ago. Possibly beaten out by modern humans. Not technologically advanced. Australopithecenes, as a whole, are a group of human ancestors (hominids) who as a group are noted for bipedal walking and small brain size. Fossils have been found in many parts of Africa. The earliest austro fossil was found in Kenya, and is between 4.2 and 3.9 million years old. The latest austro fossil was found in South Africa, and is a rather young 1 million years old.
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3. A. afarensis. Most famous example is "Lucy". Existed around 3.3 mya. Noted for having a smaller head, and thus, a reduced cranial capacity. 4. A. africanus. Existed about 3.2-3.5 mya. Frequently found in limestone pits and caves, making dating a tricky endeavor. Likely creators of the Laetoli Footprints.
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5. A. boisei Was around much later than the previous two Austros. Existed between 1 and 1.5 mya. Found in East Africa, Ethiopia, and Kenya. Also found at Turcana. 6. H. erectus. Initially believed to be the first upright human ancestor. Originated in Africa. In out of Africa theory, first wandered out of Africa then replaced by sapiens. In multiregional theory, wandered out then became sapiens.1.8 mya – 200,000 yearsa go. H. erectus' name is misleading in that they were not the first bipedal group. Even the Australopithecines could walk upright. H. erectus were found in Northern Kenya about 1.8 million years ago. They were the first to leave Africa, being spread throughout Africa, Europe, and Asia. Their body size was much larger than that of habilis and are about the same size as modern day people. Their brains were larger. They were more "robust" meaning heavier bones with heavy ridge above eyes, thick cranial bone, and very strong jaw muscles. They had a more complex culture supposedly staying in social groups and distributing food. The main distinguishing feature for H. erectus is that they used and manipulated fire, as they had adapted to very different climates (being on different continents). They made clothing of
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2012 for the course ANTH 101 taught by Professor Scarre during the Fall '07 term at UNC.

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ANTH 101 test 2 study guide - 1. H. habilis The name means...

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