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Chapter8outline - 19:46 ,

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19:46 The Separation of Powers—framers wanted the US to be able to deal with foreign  nations form a position of political strength and unity -framers understood that trade relations with foreign nations could not be handled  successfully by each state on its own, but only by a strong deferral government that  could speak for the economic and political interests of the nation as a whole  The executive-legislative debate Considerable debate has risen over how the Constitution divides power between  Congress and the president  Argument in favor—that the nation must speak with one voice ininternational affairs Shift after Vietnam and Watergate—to more power to the legislative branch After 9/11—great power given to executive  Legislative Power Article I confers "all legislative" powers on Congress, including the power "to regulate  commerce with foreign nations, and amond the several states" Congress has wide randing constitutional power to establish overall economic and trade  policy for the US and to put it into effect through legislation The day-to-day conduct of trade relations with foreign nations is often best  accomplished through a strong executive branch—congress has delegated authority to  the president to carry out the trade policies by statute Executive Power Article II confers all executive power on the president—the president has greater and  wider-reaching power over foreign affairs than over domestic policy US v. Curtiss Wright Export Co—"The President alone has the power to speak or listen  as a representative of the nation. He makes treaties with the advice and consent of the  Senate, but he alone negotiates." The president's powers over foreign affairs are derived from: Inherent executive power, including the power to conduct foreign affairs, appoint  ambassadors, receive foreign ambassadors, and act as commander-in-chief of the  armed forces The president's inherent powers—those that are either expressly granted to the  president in the Constitution or found to be there by judicial interpretation If congress has passed a statute on a subject, the president's inherent power does not  grant "license" to violate that law 
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Youngstown Sheet & Tube v. Sawyer—President Truman relied on his inherent power as  chief executive, and as commander-in-chief of the armed forces, to force the continued  operation of the nation's steel mills during the Korean War in the dace of a threatened  labor strike— Insert brief After 9/11, congress issued a joint resolution authorizing the president to "use all 
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