EDT 181 - EDT181 13:40 Chapter1 Whatisscience?...

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EDT 181 13:40  Chapter 1 What is science? Search for sense Finding order out of surroundings Objects and Properties Objects-things that can be seen or touched Properties-qualities or attributes characteristic of an object Referents-comparative properties in other more familiar objects (Examples: “sky blue”,  “lemon yellow” Problem—language can be subjective, ambiguous and ultimately circular! Quantifying Properties Measurement: uses quantitative referents- “units” Three steps: 1. Comparing the referent unit to the property being described 2. Following a procedure specifying how the comparison is done 3. Counting how man standard units describe the property under  consideration Essential-a number and name for the referent unit Measurement Systems English Many units based upon parts of the human body Different units are not systematically related
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Metric (SI) Established in 1791 7 base unit meter (m) length kilogram (kg) mass second (s) time ampere (A) electric current kelvin (K) temperature mole (mol) amount of substance candela (cd) luminous intensity Metric Prefixes Simply the conversion process Help avoid writing large or small numbers Data Measurement Information used to describe Objects Conditions Events Changes Example: dimensions of a cube
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Ratios and Generalizations Ratio-analysis through a quotient of two numbers Example: area/volume of a cube The Density Ratio Ratio of mass and volume Intrinsic property (independent of quantity) Characteristic of a given material “weight density”=weight per unit volume Symbols and Equations Symbols Represent quantities, measured properties Equations Mathematical relationships between properties Describe properties; define concepts; specify relationships More Math… Direct proportionality; increase in one generates an increase in another, decrease in one  generates a decrease in another Change in the same way Inverse proportionality; as one increases the other decreases; as one decreases the  other increases Change in opposite ways Proportionality constants:  the two sides are not equal
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The Nature of Science Beginnings—300 years ago Associated with Galileo and Newton Ancient natural philosophers- “thinking only” Additional component here – understanding based upon experimental evidence Explanations and Investigations Hypothesis-a tentative explanation for some observation Experiment-recreation of an event or occurrence to test a hypothesis
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2012 for the course EDT 181 taught by Professor Keithstevenharring during the Fall '08 term at Miami University.

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EDT 181 - EDT181 13:40 Chapter1 Whatisscience?...

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