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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Cognition: mental content and processes, includes learning and memory but also… - Representation - Problem Solving - Intelligence - Language Anterograde amnesia - Could HM learn to play a musical instrument? No. But if he knew how to play BEFORE the surgery, he could learn a new PIECE of music. Representation - How is information or knowledge coded o Analog/sensory – corresponds to features of the stimulus (e.g. visual – Kosslyn’s maps: takes longer to mentally scan between things further away on map) o Propositional/symbolic : non-sensory but meaningful, usually verbal concepts and knowledge o In both cases, two forms possible Prototype : the best/ideal example of a concept, may be one you’ve never seen but has many of the features of the concept (e.g., bird – think about a robin not an ostrich – small, feathered, flies, sings) Exemplar : actual examples of the concept you have experienced – often used to shape the prototype; shaped by culture (e.g., birds in South Florida) o Schemas and scripts Organized representations, based on experience in the world Schema s – information about common situations and roles (e.g., fashion show) Scripts – also carry information about appropriate sequences of behavior (e.g., eating in a restaurant follows a script, and the script differs depending on the type of restaurant – typical sequencing of what happens in that restaurant) - Representation can be important in problem solving o Functional fixedness – when representation is too rigid (not flexible/broad enough), specifically when you only imagine one function for an object, harmful for creative problem solving Box of matches, box of tacks, box of candles. Mount three candles on the wall. This problem is quickly solved by individuals who have been exposed to less rigid representations (e.g., a box AND matches rather than a box OF matches) Persisting in a mental set in which the problem can only be solved a certain familiar way (e.g., 3 jars problem) Mental sets influence everyday behavior (e.g., rainy day – hurry to run to car hurry to drive faster)
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o Must restructure representations – breaking functional fixedness and mental sets to allow for fluid and creative problem solving (e.g., box problem and ability to think “outside the box”) - Insight Problems o Insight: with some problems, correct solution often seems to appear in sudden flash of insight- thought to reflect restructuring of problem o Kohler (1925) Mentality of Apes: Apes were put in a room with a banana hanging from the ceiling and
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