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Unformatted text preview: MEMORY Memory: the persistence of learning over time; capacity to acquire and attain usable skills and knowledge via the storage and retrieval of information- For successful memory to occur, information must be o Encoded : processed to form a memory o Stored : maintain encoded information over time o Retrieved : recover information from storage- Differences in stages are illustrated by amnesics : o Retrograde amnesics have problem of retrieval (Bourne Identity) o Anterograde amnesics have problems of encoding and storage (Memento) ENCODING- What gets encoded? Things that are attended to / paid attention to- Encoding can happen automatically o Highly emotional events o Vivid or salient events (surprising or unusual) Lots of information does not get encoded in normal life because it is not attended to initially, therefore, no chance of remembering it later. Encoding can also happen effortfully, can train attention to try to remember something (e.g., studying)- Level of Processing o Shallow : structural encoding, noticing physical features o Intermediate : phonemic, what word sounds like or rhymes with o Deep : meaning, understanding; can take many forms Imagery : easier to remember concrete and vivid objects or events, so visual imagination mnemonics can work Elaboration : thinking about information (e.g., self-reference effect) Basic Types of Memory- Sensory memory 1/3 of a second, sensory information persists in its original form- Short term memory limited capacity that can maintain unrehearsed material for 20 seconds 1. Short storage duration roughly 20 s without rehearsal or engagement 2. Small capacity (7 items, +/- 2) Chunking: can create chunks of meaningful material to help us remember, then we can remember 7 or so chunks, each of which can contain more information Seven time and score stitch a years in saves ago nine four can you chunk this into 2 units? 3. Multiple short term systems one for holding onto visuospatial information, another for auditory/verbal information (including reading silently to yourself)- Long term memory theoretically unlimited in capacity and unlimited in duration with rehearsal o Unlimited in capacity o Can hold for unlimited time o Organized; every piece of information is connected in an association network...
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2012 for the course PSYCH 110 taught by Professor Finkel during the Spring '08 term at Northwestern.
- Spring '08