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MOTIVATION AND EMOTION “Hot” Processes (Motivation and Emotion) vs “Cold” Cognition (Intelligence and Reason) - Often there has been a tension between “reason” and emotion – but this is wrong. Emotions are adaptive for survival and actually facilitate decision making - We can easily make intelligent machines – but have done very poorly in attempting to make “affective” or emotional machines “Basic” emotions - Structuralist idea, but functionalist basis – is there a set of emotions that are “basic,” or primary? Darwin thought so. - BE’s are. .. - Functional for survival - Emerge early in life 1. Can perceive and MIMIC basic emotional expressions at birth Spontaneously SHOW joy, interest, disgust, distress 2. By 10-12 months, spontaneously show all the basic emotions 3. By 2 years, develop self-awareness and begin to show the social emotions (embarrassment, guilt, shame, etc) after passing mirror test 4. Empathy emerges at 2 but it is egocentric empathy (provide the comfort they would themselves desire) until age 4-6 5. By 7 years, emotional regulation and empathy similar to adults - Universal expression across all humans and cultures (communication of emotion should be so important that it should not depend on language) 1. Universal expression in faces Ekman’s studies: “Her child has died” vs “She has been given a gift of a new boat”= Sad vs. Happy People from all countries and cultures can pick the matching face o Makes no difference whether they have television or other means of exposure to other cultures Culture does make a difference in “display rules” – when it is appropriate to display emotions. Asians vs. North Americans very different when watching emotional movies with others (Asians inhibit, Americans amplify), but same when watching alone. For this reason, often not quite as good at reading emotional intensity from members of other cultures – emotional “dialects” Genders differ as well—women more expressive of all basic emotions but anger 2. Universal expression in voices People perform at MUCH greater than chance at recognizing the emotion of speakers of other languages Just as we share the same facial expressions across cultures, some vocal tones may also be similar, at least for some emotions “GOOD GIRrl” Music is universal - Specific physiological states/experience
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1. Fear – avoid danger 2. Anger – express dominance
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2012 for the course PSYCH 110 taught by Professor Finkel during the Spring '08 term at Northwestern.

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