4 - PERSONALITY - PERSONALITY Characteristics emotional...

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PERSONALITY - Characteristics, emotional responses, and ways in which an individual responds to the environment; differ across individuals and are relatively consistent across time - Building blocks of personality = TRAITS - Where does personality come from? o Biological Theories o Developmental Theories Attachment Freudian Social Learning o Humanist Theories - Trait: characteristic and stable pattern of thought, feeling, or behavior. Big 5 Personality Traits 1. Neuroticism – worried vs. calm, insecure vs. secure, self-pitying vs. self-satisfied 2. Extraversion – social vs. retiring, fun-loving vs. sober, affectionate vs. reserved 3. Openness – imaginative vs. down to earth, variety vs. routine, independent vs. conforming 4. Agreeableness – softhearted vs. ruthless, trusting vs. suspicious, helpful vs. uncooperative 5. Conscientiousness – organized vs. disorganized, careful vs. careless, self-disciplined vs. weak-willed Origins of personality: Biological - Hippocrates: first person to lay out a theory of personality: thought balance of 4 “humours” in the body corresponded to personality types. - “Theory of Temperamentum” o Black bile – melancholy/sad o Yellow bile – choleric/angry o Phlegm – phlegmatic/lethargic o Blood – sanguine/cheerful - Interesting that 1. Thought people differed in categorical ways 2. Thought this had a biological basis Temperament (Modern “Theory of Temperamentum”) - Differences in emotional responding that vary across individuals, and have a biological basis - Widely studied and highly heritable aspect of emotional responding. Measured in infancy - Activity/Emotionality/Sociability o Inhibited temperament (fear/shyness) Can even be measured in the womb - Stable – when measured in womb: predict parent reports at 3 months, observations at age 4, and peer and teacher reports at age 8 and beyond (though can also change, inhibited can and do sometimes become uninhibited). - Temperamental differences in infancy o Flailing of arms and legs, crying, and strong reaction to a stimulus timid, shy o Quiet and calm, lack of tension to a stimulus outgoing
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What is inherited? - Eysenck: differences in extroversion vs introversion is due to arousability – also thought to be a primary factor in temperament o Extroverts: low arousability so they seek external stimulation, lower heart rate activity to stimulation o Introverts: higher arousability so they avoid external stimulation, higher responsiveness in heart rate - Gray: differences due to Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioral Activation System (BAS) o Extroverts BAS>BIS More attuned and sensitive to reward than punishment o Introverts BIS>BAS More attuned and sensitive to punishment than reward Sensation seeking - SS Scale - One of the most heritable aspects of personality is “sensation seeking”: tendency to seek out new and/or exciting experiences - Negatively correlated to inhibited temperament, positively correlated with extroversion,
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4 - PERSONALITY - PERSONALITY Characteristics emotional...

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