Manfrino - Seawater

Manfrino - Seawater - Chapter 5 Sea Water Le a rning O b je...

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Jump to first page Chapter 5 - Sea Water Learning Objectives 1. Understand the nature of the water molecule and its unique properties and how these are altered by the presence of salt in solution. 2. Know the types of materials that are dissolved in sea water, their importance and how they vary with time. 3. Explain variations in salinity, temperature, and pressure within the sea and how they alter the chemical and physical properties of the ocean.
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Jump to first page The Atom and Electron Shells Atoms are the smallest unit in matter that  display the properties of a material   (-) Ions have a  charge because  there is a  different number  of protons and  electrons giving  the atom a  charge. Molecules are  made of 2 or  more atoms.
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Jump to first page Isotopes atoms # protons are same but # of neutrons are different and therefore have different atomic weights. Basic Chemical Notions 5-1
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Jump to first page Temperature controls density. As temperature increases, atoms or molecules move farther apart and density (mass/volume) decreases because there is less mass (fewer atoms) in the same volume. 5-2 Basic Physical Notions
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Jump to first page The water molecule is unique in structure and properties. H 2 O is the chemical formula for water. Unique properties of water include: Higher melting and boiling point than other hydrogen compounds. High heat capacity, amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water 1 o C. Greater solvent power than an other substance. 5-3 Water Molecule
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Jump to first page The water molecule is unique in structure and properties. 5-3 Water Molecule
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Jump to first page Asymmetry of a water molecule and distribution of electrons result in a dipole structure with the oxygen end of the molecule negatively charged and the hydrogen end of the molecule positively charged. 5-3 Water Molecule Dipole Structure This dipole structure  produces an electrostatic bond  between water  molecules; hydrogen  bonding makes water a  great solvent.
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Jump to first page 5-3 Water Molecule Hexagonal Crystal Structure of Ice Ice, the solid state of water floats in water because the hexagons of ice make it 8% less dense than water. Maximum density of water is reached at 3.98 o C
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Jump to first page Hydrogen bonding is responsible for many of the unique properties of water because energy is required to break the hydrogen bonds and separate the water molecules. 5-3 Water Molecule
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Jump to first page Water dissolves salts by surrounding the atoms in the salt molecule and breaking apart or neutralizing the ionic bond holding the molecule together. Dissolved salts form cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negatively charged ions).
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