• Artitotle : Elements : source and what you do w/ message. Missing : receiver, noise, actual message. Saw comm. As means through which citizens participated in democracy. Speaker construts messages that bring about persuasive effects among listeners. Theory of rhetoric: ethos(nature of the source), pathos(emotion of audience), logos(nature of the message presented by the source to the audience). • Lasswell(1948) view of com emphasized elements of speaker, message, and audience. One way process. Channel: include mass media+speech. Goal/effect: “could be variety of outcomes/effects of comm such as inform, entertain, aggravate, persuade. Problem: no noise, frame of ref, shows it as linear model when com process is a cycle/dynamic. Important expansion of idea of comm from act speaking/writing to activities such as music, art, ballet, theater. Seen as 1 way process—channel to receiver. Includes Schramm-Osgood(1954)
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