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C HAPTER 11 I NTERNATIONAL B USINESS -I LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: explain the meaning of international business; state as to why international business takes place and how does it differ from domestic business; describe the scope of international business and its benefits to the nation and business firms; identify and evaluate various modes of entry into international business; and analyse trends in India’s involvement in international business.
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252 BUSINESS STUDIES 11.1 I NTRODUCTION Countries all over the world are undergoing a fundamental shift in the way they produce and market various products and services. The national economies which so far were pursuing the goal of self-reliance are now becoming increasingly dependent upon others for procuring as well as supplying various kinds of goods and services. Due to increased cross border trade and investments, countries are no more isolated. The prime reason behind this radical change is the development of communication, technology, infrastructure etc. Emergence of newer modes of communication and development of faster and more efficient means of transportation have brought nations closer to one another. Countries that were cut-off from one another due to geographical distances and socio-economic differences have now started increasingly interacting with others. World Trade Organisation (WTO) and reforms carried out by the Mr. Sudhir Manchanda is a small manufacturer of automobile components. His factory is located in Gurgaon and employs about 55 workers with an investment of Rs. 9.2 million in plant and machinery. Due to recession in the domestic market, he foresees prospects of his sales going up in the next few years in the domestic market. He is exploring the possibility of going international. Some of his competitors are already in export business. A casual talk with one of his close friends in the tyre business reveals that there is a substantial market for automobile components and accessories in South-East Asia and Middle East. But his friend also tells him, “Doing business internationally is not the same as carrying out business within the home country. International business is more complex as one has to operate under market conditions that are different from those that one faces in domestic business”. Mr. Manchanda is, moreover, not sure as to how he should go about setting up international business. Should he himself identify and contact some overseas customers and start exporting directly to them or else route his products through export houses which specialise in exporting products made by others? Mr. Manchanda’s son who has just returned after an MBA in USA suggests that they should set up a fully owned factory in Bangkok for supplying to customers in South-East Asia and Middle East. Setting up a manufacturing plant there will help them save costs of transporting goods from India. This would also help them coming closer to the overseas customers. Mr. Manchanda is in a fix as to
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