Biology 1104 Chemical Synapses, sense receptors and effectors

Biology 1104 Chemical Synapses, sense receptors and effectors

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Lecture 17: Chemical Synapses, Sensory Receptors and Effectors What Makes Neurons Special? - They can change their membrane potential rapidly and in a controlled way -> Action Potential - The action potential can propagate (move) along the length of the axon, from one end to the other. - A change in the voltage in one neuron can lead to a change in voltage in another neuron. (this explains how information transmits through the whole nervous system) - Nerve impulse = action potential - CQ1: Neurotransmitters can cause ion channels on the post-synaptic cell to open. What is the result of open ion channels in the post-synaptic cell? o Answer: 1. The membrane potential of the post-synaptic cell will become more positive. If a Sodium channel opened. 2. The membrane potential of the post-synaptic cell will become more negative. If a chloride or potassium channel opened. 3. The membrane potential of the post-synaptic cell will change, depending on what type of ion channel opens. Correct because we don’t know what type of ion channel will be opened. 4. An action potential will be generated in the post-synaptic cell. - The nervous system has enzymes that break down neurotransmitters. Once the neurotransmitter is off of the receptor, the shape change will allow it to close and return to resting potential. - Check out the bioflix animation on eLC!!! Helpful explanation of action potential. Neurotransmitters - Biogenic amines o Epinephrine o Norepinephrine o Serotonin: re-uptake from synaptic cleft; involved in sleep and mood o Dopamine: too low, Parkinson’s; too high, schizophrenia; involved in sleep and mood - Peptides: chains of amino acids strung together o Endorphins: involved in perception of pain
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Biology 1104 Chemical Synapses, sense receptors and effectors

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