final study guide - Biology 1103: Review for Cumulative...

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I. Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins (7 questions) Food Labels: Be able to identify ingredients that contribute calories from complex carbohydrate, fiber, fats (including distinguishing ingredients that contribute saturated, unsaturated, and trans fats), and protein. o Complex carbohydrates – made up of chains of simple carbohydrates; polysaccharides (“many sugars”) Four kinds of complex carbohydrates - starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin Starch – a complex carbohydrate found in plants; it exists in the form of foods such as potatoes, rice/wheat grains, carrots/beets, corn; main form of carbohydrate storage in plants Glycogen – a complex carbohydrate found in animals; main form of carbohydrate storage in animals (“animal starch”); broken down into glucose; stored as glycogen in muscles and liver cells; meats Cellulose – rigid, complex carbohydrate contained in the cell walls of many organisms; most abundant (found in trees, cotton, leaves, grass); humans can’t digest it; serves as insoluble fiber to humans (helps move foods through digestive tract); found in plant cell walls (structure); fiber in whole grains/fresh fruits; oat/rice bran Chitin – a complex carbohydrate that forms external skeleton of insects, spiders, crustaceans, etc; gives shape and strength to structure o Fiber – form of cellulose; can’t digest; help move food through digestive tract (SEE CELLULOSE BULLET) o Fats – lipids; do not dissolve readily in water; can store energy and provide insulation; most concentrated energy source A mammal needs more saturated fats because they have a higher temperature, and plants have a lower temperature so they need more unsaturated fats. Solid -> lots of saturated fats Liquid -> lots of unsaturated fats Monounsaturated – one C=C (carbon double bond; bent chain); olive, canola, and nut oils Polyunsaturated – more than one C=C (multi-bent chain); corn, safflower, and soy oils Polyunsaturated fats containing Omega-3s - fish Saturated – no double bonds between carbon atoms; milkfat (animal source) More saturation -> more unhealthy Raise LDL (bad cholesterol) levels Partially hydrogenated fats – oils made solid by breaking C=C bonds and replacing with H; margarine Trans fat = worse than saturated fats Packaged/fast food: cookies, French fries, cakes, doughnuts, popcorn, candy, crackers o Protein – made from chains of amino acids (monomer); large, folded chain of amino acids; polypeptide chains (polymer); peanut butter, eggs, meat, milk 20 different amino acids; 8 of which body can’t form – must eat in diet Be able to calculate the relative caloric contribution from fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in a food item if given the grams of each from a food label. o
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2012 for the course BIOL 1103 taught by Professor Armstrong during the Fall '07 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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final study guide - Biology 1103: Review for Cumulative...

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