EAYH Lecture 2 Sept 1-1 - EAYH Lecture 2 Continuation of...

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EAYH Lecture 2 9/1/11 Continuation of Lecture 1... Improvements in PH Achieved in 20 th century water, food, and milk sanitation reduced physical crowding improved nutrition central heating with cleaner fuels chlorination of water typhoid fever (caused by a bacterion) drastically decreased once water started to be filtered (1906), decreased even more after chlorination of water (1913). Abel Wolman was the person who set up Baltimore city chlorinated water system. Reduced exposure to lead Lead paint banned in 1977 in US lead paint still exists on interior walls of children's homes 38 million living units in US lead paint makes fine powder- children get it on hands – exposure to their mouth keeping dust levels down reduces exposure to lead paint – keep things clean! leaded gasoline was added in 1930, but removed in 1990s air pollution reductions Hong Kong: 50% reduction in SO2 concentration in air after an intervention (restriction on sulfur in fuel) SO2 is a criteria air pollutant (regulatory criteria to it). It's an ingredient that makes acid rain. Regulations now in place in diesel fuel. After sulfur restriction, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases decreased. Major environmental legislation and restrictions have been increasing since 1935. As of 1995, ~65 laws passed. (EPA set up by Richard Nixon in 1970s) Major Categories in Goal 8 of Healthy People 2010 Proposed to Promote Human Health through a Healthy Environment: A. Outdoor air quality B. Water quality C. Toxics and waste D. Healthy homes and communities E. Infrastructure and surveillance F. Global environmental health Chemicals in the Environment Increased production of synthetic organic chemicals – dyes, plastics, solvents, etc. from less than .15 billion kg (1935) to more than 150 billion kg (1995) more than a thousand-fold in the U.S. alone Roughly 100,000 different synthetic chemicals are on global market; many others are emitted as by-products of their production, use, or disposal
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European standards on toxic chemicals are tougher than U.S. ones – companies have dilemma now Chemicals in U.S. 320 chemicals tested in a journalists blood, 165 of the chemicals were found! 97 were PCB's (which haven't been used in this country for over 40 years), 25 were PBDEs, 16 were pesticides, 10 were dioxins, etc.. test any one of us – even newborn babies have tons of chemicals in them-- very harmful for their tissues! More sensitive! Arsenic in Groundwater arsenic exposure associated with skin lesions and lung, liver, and bladder cancers. Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a global issue. Over 112 million in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India reside in areas where groundwater concentrations exceed WHO maximum permissible level (50 ug/L) Over 90% of residents in this area use groundwater for drinking and cooking This is naturally-occurring arsenic. Highest areas in America are in West and Southwest.
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