7. But pastoral societies are also very tough and good at fighting, so they are historically important, and in fact, most of them exist on the edges of other types of society, with which they exchange meat and milk for grain, fruit and other products that they need to survive. In many parts of the world pastoralists have gained political control over neighboring agricultural groups, and set up states and ruling dynasties (Mongolia is the best Asian example, but there are also many in Africa). 8. After the development of farming in some parts of the world, especially the river basins in Asia and Africa, it spread to other areas, replacing the earlier economies based on hunting and gathering. Farming technologies vary from region to region: in some they are very simple, and in some, like Asia, with complex irrigation systems, they are very complex. 9. Perhaps a distinction can be drawn between parts of the world where extensive cultivation is found, and those where intensive cultivation is found. The main area
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