11 - 11. In parts of Asia and Europe, on the other hand,...

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11. In parts of Asia and Europe, on the other hand, the population density was much higher, and so the farmers had to produce more food on less land. This is possible if they work harder -- digging ditches to irrigate the land, and putting manure on the land to make it more fertile. It is possible using these techniques to plant crops on the land all the time -- but it takes more energy. This energy can come from people, animals or machines. If the main source of energy is people, then they probably work harder than farmers in shifting cultivation systems. The development of farming has probably meant that people work harder, not less hard, than they did as hunters and gatherers. 12. Where you find permanent cultivation, you also find that some types of land are much more valuable than others. What happens in these areas very often is that one group of people gain control of the land and other people have to work for them -- in other words you get classes of land owners and tenant farmers
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