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Unformatted text preview: NOTES FOR THE TEACHER Most regions of the world are getting increasingly interconnected. While this interconnectedness across countries has many dimensions — cultural, political, social and economic — this chapter looks at globalisation in a more limited sense. It defines globalisation as the integration between countries through foreign trade and foreign investments by multinational corporations (MNCs). As you will notice, the more complex issues of portfolio investment have been left out. If we look at the past thirty years or so, we find that MNCs have been a major force in the globalisation process connecting distant regions of the world. Why are the MNCs spreading their production to other countries and what are the ways in which they are doing so? The first part of the chapter discusses this. Rather than relying on quantitative estimates, the rapid rise and influence of the MNCs has been shown through a variety of examples, mainly drawn from the Indian context. Note that the examples are an aid to explain a more general point. While teaching, the emphasis should be on the ideas and examples are to be used as illustrations. You can also creatively use comprehension passages like the one given after Section II to test and reinforce new concepts. Integration of production and integration of markets is a key idea behind understanding the process of globalisation and its impact. This has been dealt with at length in this chapter, highlighting the role of MNCs in the process. You have to ensure that the students grasp this idea with sufficient clarity, before moving on to the next topic. Globalisation has been facilitated by several factors. Three of these have been highlighted: rapid improvements in technology, liberalisation of trade and investment policies and, pressures from international organisations such as the WTO. Improvement in technology is a fascinating area for students and you may, with a few directions, encourage them to do their own explorations. While discussing liberalisation, you have to keep in mind that the students are unaware of what India was like in the pre-liberalisation era. A role-play could be conceived to compare and contrast the pre and post-liberalisation era. Similarly, international negotiations under WTO and the uneven balances in power are interesting subjects that can be covered in a discussion mode rather than as lectures. The final section covers the impact of globalisation . To what extent has globalisation contributed to the development process? This section draws on the topics covered in Chapters 1 and 2 (for example, what is a fair development goal), which you can refer to. Also, examples and activities drawn from the local environment are a must while discussing this section. This might include contexts that have not been covered in the chapter, such as the impact of imports on local farmers, etc. Collective brainstorming sessions can be conducted to analyse such situations....
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- Fall '09