Chapter 7 - 7 EMPLOYMENT GROWTH INFORMALISATION AND OTHER...

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After studying this chapter, the learners will understand a few basic concepts relating to employment such as economic activity, worker, workforce and unemployment understand the nature of participation of men and women in various economic activities in various sectors know the nature and extent of unemployment assess the initiatives taken by the government in generating employment opportunities in various sectors and regions. E MPLOYMENT : G ROWTH , I NFORMALISATION AND OTHER I SSUES 7
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117 EMPLOYMENT : GROWTH, INFORMALISATION AND OTHER ISSUES 7.1 I NTRODUCTION People do a variety of work. Some work on farms, in factories, banks, shops and many other workplaces; yet a few others work at home. Work at home includes not only traditional work like weaving, lace making or variety of handicrafts but also modern jobs like programming work in the IT industry. Earlier factory work meant working in factories located in cities whereas now technology has enabled people to produce those factory-based goods at home in villages. Why do people work? Work plays an important role in our lives as individuals and as members of society. People work for ‘earning’ a living. Some people get, or have, money by inheriting it, not working for it. This does not completely satisfy anybody. Being employed in work gives us a sense of self-worth and enables us to relate ourselves meaningfully with others. Every working person is actively contributing to national income and hence, the development of the country by engaging in various economic activities — that is the real meaning of ‘earning’ a living. We do not work only for ourselves; we also have a sense of accomplishment when we work to meet the requirements of those who are dependent on us. Having recognised the importance of work, Mahatma Gandhi insisted upon education and training through a variety of works including craft. Studying about working people gives us insights into the quality and nature of employment in our country and helps in understanding and planning our human resources. It helps us to analyse the contribution made by different industries and sectors towards national income. It also helps us to address many social issues such as exploitation of marginalised sections of the society, child labour etc. What I object to, is the ‘craze’ for machinery, not machinery as such. The craze is for what they call labour-saving machinery. Men go on ‘saving labour’ till thousands are without work and thrown on the open streets to die of starvation... Mahatma Gandhi Fig. 7.1 Multinational companies sell footballs made in the houses of Jalandhar, Punjab
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118 INDIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 7.2 W ORKERS AND E MPLOYMENT What is employment? Who is a worker? When a farmer works on fields, he or she produces food grains and raw materials for industries. Cotton becomes cloth in textile mills and in powerlooms. Lorries transport goods from one place to another. We know that the total money value of all such goods and services produced in a
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