Chapter 10 - UNIT UNIT IV I I I DEVELOPMENT EXPERIENCES OF...

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D EVELOPMENT E XPERIENCES OF I NDIA : A C OMPARISON WITH N EIGHBOURS UNIT IV
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In today’s globalised world, where geographical boundaries are slowly becoming meaningless, it is important for neighbouring countries in the developing world to understand the development strategies being pursued by their neighbours. This is more so because they share the relatively limited economic space in world markets. In this unit, we will compare India’s developmental experiences with two of its important and strategic neighbours — Pakistan and China.
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After studying this chapter, the learners will figure out comparative trends in various economic and human development indicators of India and its neighbours, China and Pakistan assess the strategies that these countries have adopted to reach their present state of development. C OMPARATIVE D EVELOPMENT E XPERIENCES OF I NDIA AND ITS N EIGHBOURS 10
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182 INDIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 10.1 I NTRODUCTION In the preceding units we studied the developmental experience of India in detail. We also studied the kind of policies India adopted, which had varying impacts in different sectors. Over the last two decades or so, the economic transformation that is taking place in different countries across the world, partly because of the process of globalisation, has both short as well as long-term implications for each country, including India. In the post- Cold War world, nations have been primarily trying to adopt various means which will strengthen their own domestic economies. To this effect, they are forming regional and global economic groupings such as the SAARC, European Union, ASEAN, G-8, G-20 etc. In addition, there is also an increasing eagerness on the parts of various nations to try and understand the developmental processes pursued by their neighbouring nations as it allows them to better comprehend their own strengths and weaknesses vis-à-vis their neighbours. In the unfolding process of globalisation, this is particularly considered essential by developing countries as they face competition not only from developed nations but also amongst themselves in the relatively limited economic space enjoyed by the developing world. Besides, an understanding of the other economies in our neighbourhood is also required as all major common economic activities in the region impinge on overall human development in a shared environment. In this chapter we will compare the developmental strategies pursued by India and the largest two of its neighbouring economies—Pakistan and China. It has to be remembered, however, that apart from the similarities in their physical endowments, there is little in common between the political power setup of India, the largest democracy of the world which is wedded to a secular and deeply liberal Constitution for over half a century, and the authoritarian militarist political power structure of Pakistan or the command economy of China that has only recently started moving towards a more liberal restructuring. 10.2 D EVELOPMENTAL P ATH
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Chapter 10 - UNIT UNIT IV I I I DEVELOPMENT EXPERIENCES OF...

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